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(495 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
(or Ibn al-Ḳābiṣī ), Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. K̲h̲alaf al-Maʿāfirī (324/935-403/1012), one of the principal representatives of the Mālikī school of Ḳayrawān, of which he was the leader after the death of Ibn Abī Zayd (d. 386/996). His father, a native of al-Maʿāfiriyyīn in the neighbourhood of Gabès, had married a woman from Ḳayrawān. An oral tradition affirms that al-Ḳābisī, Ibn Abī Zayd and Sīdī Maḥrez (Muḥriz b. K̲h̲alaf) were first cousins, since their fathers had married three sisters. His principal teachers in Ifrīḳiya were Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Ibyānī, a Tunisian with S̲h̲āfiʿī leanings, Ibn Masrūr al-Dabbāg̲h̲, and Darrās al-Fāsī who professed As̲h̲ʿarism; he was influenced by two devoutly religious men of Ḳayrawān, …


(3,822 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
( Banū Ḥafṣ ), a dynasty of Eastern Barbary (627-982/1229-1574), whose eponymous ancestor was the celebrated Companion of the Mahdī Ibn Tūmart [ q.v.], the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar b. Yaḥyā al-Hintātī [ q.v.], one of the chief architects of Almohad greatness. His son, the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. Abī Ḥafṣ, governed Ifrīḳiya from 603 to 618/1207 to 1221. His grandson, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Wāḥid, was governor in 623/1226, but was got rid of by one of his brothers (Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā) in 625/1228. Under the pretence of defending the purity of Almohad tradition, which he claimed was being undermined, the new governor omitted the name of the Muʾminid caliph from the k̲h̲uṭba (beginning of 627/Nov.-Dec. 1229) and took the title of independent amīr ; his sovereignty was fully affirmed in 634/1236-7 by the inclusion of his name in the k̲…


(350 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
b. al-manşūr b. buluḳḳīn b. zīrī , alias abū manād bādīs naṣīr al-dawla , third Zīrīd of Ifrīḳiya, enthroned on 16 Rabīʿ I 386/8 April 996. Entrusting eastern Ifrīḳiya to a devoted Arab viceamīr, he set about containing a powerful Zanātan offensive which, from 386/996 onwards, pushed forward from Tiaret to Tripoli. In 389/999, he faced the amīr of the Mag̲h̲rāwa, Zīrī b. ʿAṭiyya, who had as allies Fulful b. Saʿīd, chief of the Zanāta, and his own great-uncles. He finally defeated them (391/1001), his triumph being mainly due to his great-uncle Ḥammād b. Buluḳḳīn. From 395/1004-5 onwards, the latter repelled a new Zanātan offensive. From 390 to 406/999-1016, the Zīrid also fought in Tripolitania against Fāṭimid intervention and against Yānis, Fulful b. Saʿīd and Warrū b. Saʿīd. While the Zanātan menace gradually abated in the south-east, in the west he had to suppress the revolt of Ḥammād, founder of Ḳalʿa in 398/1007-8. In the course of this campaign, which commenced at the rnd of 405/May 1015, after having won a decisive victory at Chélif (1 Ḏj̲umādā 406/17 October 1015), but failed to take Ḳalʿa which had been beseiged for six months, Bādīs died on 30 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 406/10 Ma…

Banū K̲h̲urāsān

(1,956 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, the dynast y which, taking advantage of the anarchy initiated in Zīrīd Ifrīḳiya by the Hilālī invasion, governed Tunis 454-522/1062-1128 and 543-554/1148-59. When leaving Ḳayrawān to take refuge in al-Mahdiyya (449/1057), the Zīrīd al-Muʿizz b. Bādīs had left Ḳayrawān and Tunis in the protection of a Ṣanhād̲j̲ī chieftain Ḳāʾid b. Maymūn. The latter seems to have exercised no authority at Tunis, which was probably evacuated by the Ṣanhād̲j̲a, regrouping at al-Mahdiyya or in Ḥammādid territory, and independent. Ibn K̲h̲aldūn states that it fell prey to a Hilālī amīr , a son-in-law of al-Muʿizz b. Bādīs, ʿĀbid b. Abi ’l-G̲h̲ayt̲h̲ who reduced the inhabitants to slavery; this episode, undated, seems to have been no more than an isolated raid of which the effects were short-lived. According to the same author, a mercenary leader, Ḳahrūn b. G̲h̲annūs̲h̲, who became governor of Tunis, was banished from there because of his bad administration; subsequently he made a stronghold for himself in the arches of the aqueduct at Manzil Daḥmūn, a refuge of brigands which the Tunisians succeeded in destroying with the aid of the Riyāḥid amīr

Ibn Abī Zayd al-Ḳayrawānī

(546 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Zayd ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (310-86/922-96), head of the Mālikī school of Ḳayrawān. He came of a family from Nafzawa and studied at Ḳayrawān, his birthplace, where his knowledge, his literary gifts, his piety and his wealth very soon earned him considerable prestige throughout the Muslim world. He came under the influence of As̲h̲ʿarism, which had a large following in Ḳayrawān at that time, and also that of mysticism, against whose excesses, and especially that of miracle-working, he fought. By teaching, delivering innumerable fatwā s a…

Ibn ʿArafa

(197 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad al-Warg̲h̲…

Ibn al-D̲j̲azzār

(328 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Ibrāhīm b. Abī K̲h̲ālid , famous physician of Ḳayrawān, died at a great age in about 395/1004-5. His father was a physician, as was also his paternal uncle Abū Bakr. He made no journey outside Ifrīḳiya. A pupil of the celebrated Isḥāḳ b. Sulaymān al-Isrāʾīlī [ q.v.], he was a philanthropist and led an austere life, caring not only for the great and rich but also for the poor, for whom indeed he composed a Kitāb Ṭibb al-fuḳarāʾ (“Medicine for the poor”), which is unhappily lost with all the rest of his medical works (about 20 titles) except for a

Ibn Abī Dīnār, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abi ’l-Ḳāsim al-Ruʿaynī al-Ḳayrawānī

(112 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, historian of Ḳayrawān. In 1092/1681 or in 1110/1698 he wrote a history of Tunisia entitled Kitāb al-Muʾnis fī ak̲h̲bār Ifrīḳiya wa-Tūnis , printed Tunis 1286/1861-2; tr. Pellissier and Remusat, Paris 1845. It is a mediocre work. Though of interest for the period close to the date when it was written, it is hardly so for any others.…


(294 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, abū ’l-ḳāsim b. aḥmad b. muḥammad , of the tribe of the Banū Birzāla, a Mālikī author. Born in al-Ḳayrawān, he studied under Ibn ʿArafa for thirty or forty years and under other great masters, and became himself a teacher of Islamic law in Tunis and an imām at the Zaytūna mosque. In 806/1403, he passed on the pilgrimage through Cairo, where he issued several id̲j̲āzas


(1,934 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
( Banū Ḥammād ) a Central Mag̲h̲rib dynasty (405-547/1015-1152) collateral with that of the Zīrids of Eastern Barbary, taking its name from its founder Ḥammād b. Buluggīn b. Zīrī b. Manād. The aspirations towards Ifrīḳiya of the Ṣanhād̲j̲a amīr s, the Zīrids, lieutenants and vassals of the Fāṭimids in the Mag̲h̲rib, brought about the split between the Central Mag̲h̲rib and Ifrīḳiya proper. Under the second Zīrid, al-Manṣūr b. Buluggīn, his uncle Abu ’l-Bahār b. Zīrī had already tried without success to carve out…

Ibn Abī Zarʿ

(213 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad al-Fāsī , d. between 710 and 720/1310-20 at Fez, where he was imām , composed a history of Morocco entitled al-Anīs al-muṭrib bi-rawḍ al-ḳirṭās fī ak̲h̲bār mulūk al-Mag̲h̲rib wa-taʾrīk̲h̲ madīnat Fās

Buluggīn (in Arabic: Buluḳḳīn) b. Zīrī

(357 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
b. manād , first Zīrid of Ifrīḳiya (4th/10th century). As a reward for distinction in the service of the Fāṭimids as


(211 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, an ancient place-name in southeast Tunisia—which may be located in the neighbourhood of Gabès on the road leading from that town to Ḳayrawān—where, on 11 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 443/14 April 1052, the Ṣanhād̲j̲a forces under the command of the Zīrid amīr al-Muʿizz b. Bādīs were annihilated by the Hilālī hordes, to whom the Fāṭimid caliph in Cairo had handed over Ifrīḳiya as a reprisal for its recognition of the ʿAbbāsid caliph of Bag̲h̲dād. There were not two battles at Ḥaydarān, taking place…

Ibn ʿArūs

(156 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad , Sīdī b. ʿArūs, (died 868/1463), the greatest Tunisian saint of the late Middle Ages. A native of Cape Bon, at first he performed menial tasks while educating himself, particularly in Ṣūfism, firstly in Tunisia and then in Morocco, where he lived for a long time. He settled finally at Tunis and there lived as a vagabond marabout and miracle-worker, indulging in the most scandalous excesses, and in tak̲h̲rīb , or violation of moral and religious rules. In spite of the protests of some of the fuḳahāʾ he attracted the infatuation of the masse…


(2,768 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R. | Schleifer, J.
, eponymous ancestor of the tribe of the Banū Hilāl whom the Arab genealogists trace back to Muḍar according to the following lineage: Muḍar → ʿAylān → Ḳays → K̲h̲aṣafa → ʿ Ikrima → Manṣūr → Hawāzin → Bakr → Muʿāwiya → Ṣaʿṣaʿa →ʿ Amīr → Hilāl. Its three main divisions were the At̲h̲bad̲j̲, the Riyāḥ and the Zug̲h̲ba. This tribe naturally played its part along with the other groups of the ʿĀmīr b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa in the pre-Islamic tribal struggles or