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Litter, Sedan chair

(529 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (φορεῖον/ phoreîon; Latin lectica, sella sc. gestatoria, portatoria). The litter as a means of conveyance has been known in the Orient since earliest times; in Greece it is first mentioned in the 4th cent. BC (Din. 1,36); in Hellenism it is a luxury item (Ath. 5,195c; 212c; Diod. Sic. 31,8,12). We cannot determine when the litter was introduced to the Roman empire but it was in general use from the 2nd cent. BC (cf. Liv. 43,7,5; Gell. NA 10,3,51); its excessive utilization in Rome already compelled Caesar to limit its use in the …

Neck ornaments

(655 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Greece Neck ornaments famously play a role in the myth of Eriphyle, as they do in that of Scylla (Aesch. Choe. 613-622). The comedy Plókion by Menander also deserves mention (cf. Plut. Mor. 2,141d; Gell. 2,23,6). In Aristaen. 1,1 the stones of the necklace are organised in such a way that they give the name of Lais. Neck ornaments (ἁλύσιον/ halúsion, κάθημα/ káthēma, μάννος/ mánnos, μανιάκης/ maniákēs, ὅρμος/ hormos, πλόκιον/ plókoin) as a chain or a rope, with and without pendants, have survived in great numbers throughout the Mediterranean since…

Sabanum

(90 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A Roman coarse linen cloth, used to dry off and rub down the body after bathing (Apul. Met. 1,23, cf. Mart. 12,70) or to wrap around the body, in order to raise a sweat after a steam bath; a sabanum was also used to squeeze out honeycombs and to envelop food during the cooking process (Apicius 6,215; 239). Late Antiquity understood a sabanum to be a linen garment decorated with gold and precious stones (Ven. Fort. Vita S. Radegundis 9) or a coat. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)

Pera

(144 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (πήρα/ pḗra, πηρίδιον/ pērídion, Latin pera). A bag or satchel for carrying bread (Theoc. Epigr. 1,49; Ath. 10,422b), seeds (Anth. Pal. 6,95; 104) or herbs and vegetables (Aristoph. Plut. 298), which belonged to the equipment of hunters (Anth. Pal. 6,176), shepherds (Anth. Pal. 6,177) or fishermen and was worn at the hip by means of a strap over the shoulder. The pera was already an item characterizing beggars in Hom. Od. 13,437; 17,197; 410; 466 (cf. Aristoph. Nub. 924), and later became, along with the walking staff ( báktron, Latin baculum, staff), a symbol used by …

Fan

(391 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ῥιπίς, rhipís; flabellum). Fans were used in the Orient and in Egypt from ancient times as symbols of status. The fan probably did not reach Greece until the 5th cent. BC; Eur. Or. 1426-1430 (first mention) still calls the fan ‘barbaric’, but it quickly became one of a woman's most important accoutrements (cf. Poll. 10,127); she would either cool herself with it or have a female servant fan her (cf. the flabellifera in Plaut. Trin. 252 and the flabrarius as her male counterpart in Suet. Aug. 82). On Greek vases and terracotta (‘Tanagra figurines’) fans are…

Peplos

(543 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(πέπλος; péplos). [German version] [1] Blanket, cloth, or shroud Blanket, cloth, or shroud (Hom. Il. 24,796; Eur. Tro. 627, cf. Eur. Hec. 432); later, women's outer garment or coat (Hom. Il. 5,734; Hom. Od. 18,292, cf. Xen. Cyr. 5,1,6). In the myth, the Trojan women place a peplos on the knees of the cult image of seated Athena (Hom. Il. 6,303). Peplos is also the term used for esp. magnificent robes, above all for the dress of Hera of Olympia which was newly woven every four years by 16 women (Paus. 5,16) and for that of Athena Polias in Athens, which wa…

Jewellery

(2,921 words)

Author(s): Rehm, Ellen (Frankfurt/Main) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
Material and motifs indicate that jewellery in antiquity could be thought of as warding off evil or bringing luck. Not only men, women and children, but also idols wore jewellery. Jewellery was also often used as grave goods. [German version] I. Near East Beads made of shell and bone (later also wood) are again and again found in graves from the 7th/6th millennia BC. Gold and silver jewellery is known from the middle of the 3rd millennium BC from the Near East, sometimes with inlaid semiprecious stones, and in a great variety of forms (p…

Calceus

(275 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Roman shoe or half-boot made of leather that was probably adopted from the Etruscans and was part of the clothing ( vestis forensis) of the noble Roman citizen. If a member of the nobility dressed in other shoes in public, he would be criticized (Suet.Tib. 13; an exception was the dress for the banquet at which people wore the solla; Hor. Sat. 2,8,77; Mart. 3,50,3; Suet. Vit. 2). In Roman literature and art the calceus was represented in many ways; three variants can be distinguished that at the same time served to differentiate between social ranks. Th…

Stylus

(296 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
(γραφίς/ graphís, γραφεῖον/ grapheîon; Latin stilus, graphium). [German version] [1] Tool for drawing Tool for drawing, also called a drawing- (or ruling)-pen, see Construction technique, Building trade. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) [German version] [2] Writing implement Implement for writing on a wooden tablet covered with wax (Cera). The pointed (lower) end of a stylus was used to engrave the text to be written on the tablet and, by inverting it, the flat (upper) end could be used to correct mistakes by re-smoothing the wax ( stilum vertere, e.g. Hor. Sat. 1,10,72). Representati…

Forum

(8,477 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
I. Archaeology and urban studies [German version] A. Definition and Function Latin term for market, market place; rarely also the forecourt of a tomb (in the meaning of Greek drómos, e.g. Cic. Leg. 2,61) or part of a wine press (Varro, Rust. 1,54; Columella 11,2,71). As the mercantile and administrative centre of a Roman city ( Town/City), the forum, which took the form of a large open space framed by buildings, was essentially the equivalent of the Greek  agora. A location at the intersection of the   decumanus and   cardo in the city centre is the rule in …

Cesnola Painter

(187 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Named after his geometric krater, formerly in the Cesnola collection (h. 114.9 cm with lid, from Kourion/Cyprus, now in New York, MMA, Inv. 74. 51. 965;  Geometric pottery). The work of the anonymous vase painter combines motifs from the Middle East with those from mainland Greece and the Greek islands. In the past, both the unusual form of the eponymous krater and the combination of decorative motifs led to discussion as to its date and origin, but these are now confirmed by ana…

Kiss

(4,070 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Typology To create a typology of the kiss in antiquity seems rather difficult, given its many specifications, of which the erotic kiss represents no more than a single facet. Existing approaches barely go beyond collections of material [1; 2; 3]. As far as tradition permits, two main categories can be distinguished: formal kisses (in politics; client relations; cult, religion) and private kisses (in family, kinship, friendship; love relations). Within these main categories and th…

Thymiaterion

(457 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | A.FR., Hans Georg
(θυμιατήριον/ thymiatḗrion). [German version] I. Classical Antiquity Fumigating apparatus for burning aromatic substances (incense etc.) - adopted by ancient Greek culture from the Orient - of bronze, clay, precious metals, less often stone, used in cults of gods, rulers and the dead. The thymiaterion was part of the domestic inventory (Dem. Or. 24,183) and was used on celebratory occasions in the private sphere (wedding, symposion). They were carried in festal processions (Ath. 5,196 f). The thymiaterion consisted of a fumigating capsule with a perforated lid, in whic…

Wreath, Garland

(712 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (στέφανος/ stéphanos, στεφάνη/ stephánē, Lat. corolla, corona). Wreaths and garlands were formed out of flowers, leaves and branches, or were reproduced (out of bronze, silver and gold; cf. e.g. [1]) in their image. They were a constituent part of culture and everyday life in Greece and Rome: a symbol of consecration, honouring and decoration for people and gods. Wearing a wreath was a mark of distinction ( cf. Apul. Met. 11,24.4) and it was reprehensible to attack a person wearing one ( cf. Aristoph. Plut. 21). Wreaths have been worn from time immemorial (Tert…

Ofellius

(378 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
Roman family name (also Offellius, Offillius etc.), probably from the Oscan praenomen Of(f)ellus, which also appears as a cognomen (a landowner in Venusia: Hor. Sat. 2,2,2f.; 53f.; 112ff.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] O. Tribunus militum, 36 BC Tribunus militum in 36 BC, mocked rewards handed out by Octavian (Augustus) as paltry, whereupon according to Appian he vanished without trace (App. B Civ. 5,532f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] O., A. Roman jurist Jurist, see Ofilius Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2a] O. Ferus, C. Campanian …

Simpuvium

(87 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] ( simpulum, simpuium). Short-handled ladle of Roman priests and Vestal Virgins, usually of clay (Plin. HN 35,158); it was used to pour the wine needed for a  sacrifice (with ill.) on the sacrificial bowl. There are several representions of simpuvia on coins and in reliefs. In everyday life the simpuvium was replaced by the long-handled Greek kýathos (Varro Ling. 5,124). Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography E. Zwierlein-Diehl, Simpuvium Numae, in: H. A. Cahn (ed.), Tainia. Festschrift R. Hampe 1980, 405-422 (with notes 58 and 69 on the form simpuium).

Hearth

(676 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἐσχάρα/ eschára, ἑστία/ hestía, Lat. focus, ara, lar, cf. also  Altar). Greeks and Romans honour the hearth and hearth fire especially ( Hestia,  Lares,  Penates,  Vesta,  Fire), since these are the places of worship and the seats of the household gods. It was also the place in the house where the family would meet for meals, as well as a source of light and warmth; thus hearth came to be synonymous with house. During the wedding ( Wedding customs) the bride is led into the bridegroom's house and around the hearth, and the katachýsmata are poured over her, cf. the amphidrómia…

Soccus

(90 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Slipper-like, light half-shoe (Catull. 61,10), probably adopted by the Romans from Greek areas (perhaps σύκχος/ sýkchos or συκχίς/ sykchís, Anth. Pal. 6,294). Originally a woman's shoe, it was also worn by 'effeminate' men (Suet. Cal. 52). Later Diocletian's Price Edict distinguished between socci for men and women, in various colours. The soccus was also considered to be a comedy actor's shoe (cf. Hor. Epist. 2,1,174; Hor. Ars 79 f.), so that soccus became a synonym for comedy (as cothurnus for tragedy). Illustration of a soccus under shoes. Hurschmann, Rolf (Ham…

Orarium

(138 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (also called sudarium). The use of a 'face-cloth' ( orarium) or 'sweat-cloth' ( sudarium) is attested from the 1st cent. BC (Quint. Inst. 6,3,60; 11,3,148); it was used to wipe away sweat, cover the mouth (Suet. Nero 25), cover the head (Suet. Nero 45) or dry the hands (Petron. 67). It could also be worn around the neck (Suet. Nero 51; Petron. 67). According to Catull. 12,14 and 25,7, sudaria were made of Spanish linen. The name orarium does not emerge until the 3rd cent. AD; the two were used synonymously, with the orarium now being used for applause in arenas, for cover…

Sports equipment

(774 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Equipment needed for training and for practising a sport in antiquity. 1) Hoplitodromia (verb ὁπλιτοδρομεῖν/ hoplitodromeȋn) was the last running competition to be included in the programme of the Olympic Games (Olympia IV.) in 520 BC (65th Olympiad). In the beginning it was run in full kit (helmet, greaves, round shield), but the armour was successively reduced until only the shield (ἀσπίς/ aspís) remained ( cf. Paus. 6,10,4). this discipline, which only adult males entered, is represented particularly in vase paintings. 2) The torch race (λαμπαδηδρομία/ lampadēd…
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