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Oppenheim, Adolph Leo

(762 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann
Austrian-American Assyriologist. Born Adolf Leo O., Vienna, 7. 6. 1904, died Berkeley, California, 21. 7. 1974. Studied Oriental studies at Univ. of Vienna, with doctorate 1933. Assistant at Oriental institute there. Dismissed on racial grounds 1938; emigration (via France) to United States (parents murdered at Theresienstadt). 1941/42 worked at New York Public Library, then 1945 at Johns Hopkins Univ. in Baltimore, 1945/46 at Dropsie College in Philadelphia, 1944–1947 at the Asia Institute in N…

Neugebauer, Otto

(426 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann
Austrian-American historian of mathematics. Born Otto Eduard N., Innsbruck, 26. 5. 1899, died Princeton, New Jersey, 19. 2. 1990. Studied physics and mathematics at Graz, Munich and Göttingen; doctorate 1926 and habil. 1927, Göttingen. 1932 prof. ext. there, 1933 suspended by the National Socialists for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to Hitler. 1934 prof. at Copenhagen; 1939 emigration to the United States and prof. at Brown Univ. (Providence, Rhode Island), founding the Department for …

Neugebauer, Otto

(403 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann
Österr.-amerikan. Mathematikhistoriker. Geb. am 26. 5. 1899 als Otto Eduard N. in Innsbruck, gest. am 19. 2. 1990 in Princeton (New Jersey). Studium der Physik und Mathematik in Graz, München und Göttingen; Prom. 1926 und Habil. 1927 in Göttingen. 1932 ao.Prof. ebda., 1933 von den Nationalsozialisten suspendiert, weil er sich weigerte, den Treueeid auf Hitler zu leisten. 1934 Prof. in Kopenhagen; 1939 Emigration in die USA und Prof. an der Brown Univ. (Providence, Rhode Island), 1947 dort Einric…

Oppenheim, Adolph Leo

(709 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann
Österr.-amerikan. Assyriologe. Geb. am 7. 6. 1904 in Wien als Adolf Leo O., gest. am 21. 7. 1974 in Berkeley (bei San Francisco). Studium der Orientalistik an der Univ. Wien, 1933 Prom.; Assistent am Oriental. Institut ebda. 1938 Entlassung aus rassischen Gründen und Emigration (über Frankreich) in die USA (Eltern in Theresienstadt ermordet). 1941/42 an der New York Public Library tätig, 1945 an der Johns Hopkins Univ. in Baltimore, 1945/46 am Dropsie College in Philadelphia, 1944–1947 am Asia I…

Astral deities

(329 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann (Vienna)
[German version] Some, (but by no means all) gods in the religions of Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt are represented by astral bodies: the sun ( Samas in Mesopotamia and  Re and  Aton in Egypt) and the moon ( Sin and  Thot) are gods. They are viewed and worshipped as part of the cosmos -- both in the form in that they appear in the cosmos and as anthropomorphous figures. Their inherent power and the resulting effects, their influence on cosmic events and human destiny are thematized in myths and myt…


(3,354 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang | Hunger, Hermann
(Zodiakos: ζῳδιακὸς κύκλος/ zōidiakós kýklos, lat. zodiacus oder signifer, wörtl.: “Kreis von Lebewesen”). Namen     Namen     Namen     Melothesie     Zwölfgötter     deutsch     griechisch     lateinisch     Widder     Kriós     Aries     Kopf     Minerva     Stier     Taúros     Taurus     Hals     Venus     Zwillinge     Dídymoi     Gemini     Schultern, Arme     Apollo     Krebs     Karkínos     Cancer     Brust     Mercurius     Löwe     Léōn     Leo     Seiten     Iuppiter     Jungfrau     Parthénos     Virgo     Leib     Ceres     Waage  …


(293 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann (Wien)
[English version] Manche (aber keineswegs alle) Götter in den Rel. Mesopotamiens, Syriens und Ägyptens sind durch Gestirne repräsentiert: Sonne (Šamaš in Mesopot., bzw. Re, Aton in Äg.) und Mond (Sin bzw. Thot) sind Götter. Sie werden als Teil des Kosmos begriffen und verehrt - sowohl in ihrer kosmischen Erscheinungsform als auch in anthropomorpher Gestalt. Die ihnen innewohnenden Kräfte und das daraus resultierende Wirken, ihr Einfluß auf das kosmische Geschehen und das menschliche Schicksal find…


(2,211 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann | Hübner, Wolfgang
[English version] I. Alter Orient Die Sterne wurden in Mesopotamien zu S. zusammengefaßt; manche dieser Vorstellungen von S. wurden schon im 2. Jt. v. Chr. an andere Kulturen weitergegeben und sind über griech.-röm. Vermittlung auch h. noch üblich. So gehen die Tierkreis-S. Stier, Zwillinge, Krebs, Löwe, Waage, Skorpion, Schütze, Fische auf babylonische Vorbilder zurück, aber z. B. auch der große Wagen ( Ursa Maior), der Rabe und der Adler. Babylon. Listen von S. gibt es seit dem Anf. des 2. Jt. [4]. Systematisch angeordnet sind die S. in der Serie mulApin (Fixsterne). Die meist…


(5,492 words)

Author(s): Krafft, Fritz (Marburg/Lahn) | Hunger, Hermann (Vienna)
[German version] A. Extent, definition and term Astronomy is the description, causal justification and forecast of celestial phenomena, the latter on the basis of repeatable and repeated observations or calculations based on these -- and periods derived from them. In Greece astronomy originally comprised all the μετέωρα ( metéōra, celestial bodies; Thales fr. A 2; Gorgias fr. B 11, 13 DK), at the latest since Aristotle the metéōra conceived as sublunary were largely excluded. Besides, in the pre-Classical period exclusively, in Aristotle and by preference (syno…


(381 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann (Vienna) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Currently 32 horoscopes are known from Babylonia from the period 410 to 69 BC. They mostly begin with the date on which a child was born. This is followed by the positions of the moon, sun and planets in the sequence Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Saturn, Mars. The positions are given relative to the signs of the zodiac, and sometimes the degree within a sign. Sometimes this is followed by further astronomical phenomena from the month or the year of birth. The positions a…


(526 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann (Vienna) | Kunitzsch, Paul (Munich)
[German version] A. Babylonia The cuneiform script texts called astrolabia (oldest example c. 1100 BC) are lists of constellations with the ancient name ‘The three stars each’. For each month three constellations are named, which ascend (heliacally). Four planets are also included, the risings of which do not remain in the same month; this results in schematization. Some examples organize the stars in a circle divided into 12 sectors. Many texts also contain explanations of the star names or numbers, which vary parallel to the length of the day [1]. Hunger, Hermann (Vienna) …


(1,454 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Hunger, Hermann (Vienna)
(ἀστρολογία; astrología). [German version] A. Term Astrology is the original and more natural name for the study of the heavens in general; until well into late antiquity it was not strictly demarcated from its rival word astronomía, which is closely linked to the Platonic school [24]. According to current understanding astrology is concerned with forecasts according to a specific position of the stars and, according to the mythical way of thinking, has available for this a comprehensive categorization system of space and time [10]. Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) [German version] B. Anc…


(2,264 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann (Vienna) | Fritscher, Bernhard (Munich)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Meteorology in the sense of a systematic study of the weather is found in Babylon in the form of omens, for instance in the omen collection Enūma Anu Enlil ( Astrology). Thunder (‘the call of the god Adad’) and lightning were particularly important; for instance, the date, time of day, direction, and number of their occurrence were observed. For rain, the time and the way it appeared were considered ominous, as were rainbows, the colour and position of the clouds in the sky, as well as twiligh…


(2,459 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann (Vienna) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient In Mesopotamia, the visible stars were combined into constellations; some of these notions about constellations were communicated to other cultures as early as the 2nd millennium BC and, through Greek-Roman transmission, are still common today. The constellations of the  zodiac ─ Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, and Pisces ─ can be traced back to Babylonian models, also the Big Dipper ( Ursa Maior), the Raven, and the Eagle, among others. Babylonian  lists of constellations have existed since the early 2nd mille…

Fixed stars

(1,142 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann (Vienna) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Sumerian and Akkadian languages do not distinguish between fixed stars and planets: for both MUL or kakkabu is used. Nevertheless the movement of the planets in relation to the fixed stars was known. Individual fixed stars certainly rarely had their own names (e.g. Li9-si4 = Antares), but most were grouped into  constellations. According to their position in the sky, they were initially roughly organized in the so-called  astrolabia (earliest example around 1100 BC), then more precisely in the astronomical c…


(3,907 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Hunger, Hermann (Vienna)
(Zodiakos: ζῳδιακὸς κύκλος/ zōidiakós kýklos, Lat. zodiacus or signifer, literally: 'circle of animals'). Name     Name     Name     Melothesia     Twelve Gods     English     Greek     Latin     Ram     Kriós     Aries     Head     Minerva     Bull     Taûros     Taurus     Neck     Venus     Twins     Dídymoi     Gemini     Shoulders, arms     Apollo     Crab     Karkínos     Cancer     Chest     Mercurius     Lion     Léōn     Leo     Flanks     Iuppiter     Maiden     Parthénos     Virgo     Abdomen     Ceres     Scales     Zygós (Chēlaí)     Lib…

Milky Way

(568 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann (Vienna) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient The expression for the MW in ancient Mesopotamia has not yet been discovered. However, it is possible that it referred to milk; in hymnal texts, the stars were described as the ‘cattle herds of the Moon deities’. In Egypt, too, the MW was perceived as a phenomenon; its designation is still discussed in modern scholarship [2]. Hunger, Hermann (Vienna) Bibliography 1 W. Heimpel, The Babylonian Background of the Term ‘Milky Way’, in: H. Behrens (Ed.), FS A.Sjöberg, 1989, 249-252 2 O. Neugebauer, R. A. Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts I, 1960, 50. …


(1,328 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Hunger, Hermann (Wien)
(Ἀστρολογία). [English version] A. Begriff A. ist die urspr. und näherliegende Bezeichnung für die Himmelskunde insgesamt; sie wird von dem Konkurrenzwort astronomía, das eng mit der platonischen Schule verbunden ist, bis in die Spätant. hinein nicht streng geschieden [24]. Nach heutigem Verständnis bemüht sich die A. um Voraussagen nach einem bestimmten Sternstand und hält dafür nach Art der mythischen Denkweise ein umfassendes raumzeitliches Kategoriensystem bereit [10]. Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) [English version] B. Alter Orient Die A. im Alten Orient beruht vor a…


(354 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann (Wien) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Derzeit sind 32 H. aus Babylonien aus der Zeit von 410 bis 69 v.Chr. bekannt. Sie beginnen meist mit dem Datum, an dem ein Kind geboren wurde. Es folgt die Position von Mond, Sonne und den Planeten in der Reihenfolge Jupiter, Venus, Merkur, Saturn, Mars. Die Position wird nach Tierkreiszeichen, manchmal auch nach Grad innerhalb eines Zeichens gegeben. Mitunter folgen weitere astronomische Phänomene aus dem Monat oder dem Jahr der Geburt. Die Positionen sind berechnet…


(526 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann (Wien) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Das Wort für M. im ant. Mesopot. konnte noch nicht gefunden werden. Es ist aber möglich, daß es mit Milch zu tun hatte; die Sterne wurden in hymnischen Texten als die “Rinderherden des Mondgottes” bezeichnet. Auch in Äg. hat man die M. als Phänomen wahrgenommen; über ihre Bezeichnung herrscht Unstimmigkeit [2]. Hunger, Hermann (Wien) Bibliography 1 W. Heimpel, The Babylonian Background of the Term “Milky Way”, in: H. Behrens (Hrsg.), FS A.Sjöberg, 1989, 249-252 2 O.Neugebauer, R.A. Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts I, 1960, 50. [English version] I…
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