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Abu ’l-G̲h̲āzī Behādur K̲h̲ān

(396 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Turkish historian and sovereign of Ḵh̲wārizm, was the 2d son of ʿArab Muḥammed Ḵh̲ān, whose capital was Urgand̲j̲, and who was descended from Cinggīz Ḵh̲ān. He was born near Urgand̲j̲ in 1603 (the year of the hare; the date given by himself of the Hegira — 1014 = 1605 — cannot be correct). Being on bad terms with his brothers, his father invested him with the government of the town of Kāt; he commanded the right wing when his father was defeated by his rebellious sons, and took refuge at Samarḳand with…

Ḳānūn-Nāma

(196 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the name given to the fundamental law of the Ottoman Empire promulgated by Sulṭān Muḥammad II on the advice of his Grand Vizier, Muḥammad of Caramania. It is divided into three sections called bāb (chapter), which treat respectively of the great dignitaries of the Empire, of customs and ceremonies and lastly of the fines for crimes and re…

Turs̲h̲īz

(385 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Yāḳūt: Turs̲h̲īs̲h̲, Muḳaddasī: Turt̲h̲īt̲h̲, Turait̲h̲īt̲h̲), a town in Persia, capital of the district of Bus̲h̲t in the province of Nīs̲h̲ābūr, four or five stages from the lat…

Ḏj̲azzār-Pas̲h̲a

(461 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Aḥmed, Pas̲h̲a of ʿAkkā, a Bosnian by birth, although he is said to have belonged to Widdin or Nis̲h̲, born about 1132 = 1720, was first of all in the service of the Grand Vizier Ḥakīm-Og̲h̲lū ʿAlī-Pas̲h̲a, whom he accompanied to Egypt, when the latter was entrusted with its administration for the second time; he then made th…

Ẓahīr al-Dīn

(133 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Saiyid) al-Marʿas̲h̲ī, son of the Saiyid Nāṣir al-Dīn, descendant of a family of ¶ Saiyids, Persian statesman and historian, born in 815 (1412), was at the court of Muḥammad, Sulṭān of Gīlān, for whose son Kārgiā Mīrzā ʿAlī he composed the Chronicle of Ṭabaristān from the earliest times to 881 (1476). The sovereign employed him on various missions, sent him to the help of Malik Iskandar, son of Malik Kayomart̲h̲ of Rustamdār, who was fighting his brother Malik Kāʾūs and entrusted him with other military expeditions; among these …

Dailam

(248 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Ptolemy ΔελυμκΐΣ), the mountainous part of Gīlān, which is inhabited by a tribe of the same name (the Δελυμαῖοι of Polybius); it is bounded on the north by Gīlān proper, in the east by Ṭabaristān or Māzandarān, in the west by Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān and the land of al-Rān, in the south by the districts of Ḳazwīn and Ṭarm and in part by Rai. The kings of the land belonged to the Ḏj̲astān family and resided in Ṭarm. The Dailamites were heathen and therefore exposed to slave-hunters, till they elected the ʿAlid al-Ḥasan b. Zaid as their suzerain (in 250 = 864; Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, vii. 85; Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, vii. 342). Another ʿAlid, al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī Oṭrūs̲h̲ (the deaf) converted a section of them to Islām (301 = 913; Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, viii. 279; ix. 5). The Dailamites rendered assistance to Mardāwid̲j̲ [q. v.]. They supplied numerous mercenaries to the armies of the ʿAbbāsid Caliphs; led by Aḥmad b. Buwaih they deposed the Caliph Mustakfī (334 = 946; Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, viii. 410). Ḵh̲orzād, who was entrusted by Ḵh̲usraw I. with the task of conquering Yemen with the rank of Wahriz, had been Marzbān of Dailam (Masʿūdī, Tanbīh, transl. by Carra de Vaux, p. 345).…

K̲h̲ams(a)

(229 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a.), the number five. This number has a magical character, from the fact that it is the number of the fingers of the hand and that it is found in certain Muslim dogmas (five foundations of belief, five religious duties, five daily prayers, prescribed by the canon). The hand stretched out with the palm open and the fingers expanded is a symbol that protects against the evil eye; in North Africa we frequently find, among Jews as well as Muslims, a h…

Afs̲h̲ār

(136 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Turkish tribe emigrated to Persia, where it formed two great divisions, Ḳāsimlū and Erek̲h̲lū according to Ritter ( Asien, viii. 400—405), or S̲h̲āmlū and Ḳirḳlū according to Morier. It consists of 88000 families scattered in Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān, Ḵh̲amse (Zengān and Ḳizil-Özen), Ḳazwīn, Hamad̲h̲ān, Teherān, Ḵh̲ūzistān, Kermān,…

Dobrūd̲j̲a

(566 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(from ΔόβηρεΣ, in Herodotus V, 16 a Paeonian people, or from Dobrotič, the name of a Bulg̲h̲ār ruler of the xivth century, or from the Bulgarian dobriče “stony, unfertile plain”), a district in Roumania, a peninsula bounded by the lower Danube and the Black Sea (from the coast of Balčiḳ to the delta of the river); it is a broad, arid plateau from 200—300 feet high, of grey sand, covered with swamps, without drinking water, but rich in pasture for cattle; it has numerous lakes of which Ḳaraṣū in the centre and the lake of…

ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd

(532 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Turkish sultan, born on the 11th S̲h̲aʿbān 1238 (23d April 1823), eldest son of Maḥmūd II, whom he succeeded on the 25th Rabīʿ II 1255 (8th July 1839). The first thing he did was to order the suspension of hostilities against Muḥammed ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a of Egypt, who had just won the victory of Nezīb; but the High-Admiral refused to comply with this order and led his fleet into the port of Alexandria. He ordered the proclamation of the

Bāber

(777 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Zahīr al-Dīn Muḥammad, founder of the Great Mug̲h̲al dynasty in India, eldest son of ʿOmar S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Mīrzā, great grandson of Mīrān S̲h̲āh the son of Tīmūr, through his mother Ḳutlūḳ Nigār he was descended from Čagatai, the second son of Chingīz Ḵh̲ān. When only twelve years of age he succeeded his father in Farg̲h̲āna (5 Ramaḍān 899 = 10 June 494); he took Samarḳand (903 = 1497) but could not hold it for more than a hundred days; he then took up a firm position at Ḵh̲od̲j̲and from which he was …

Zāwa

(145 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, in Ḵh̲orāsān near Naisābūr. In the time of Muḳaddasī, it was a rural district which did not contain a town; but later (xivth century) there was a fine town there with a citadel built of brick. It contains the tomb of the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Ḥaidar, who was still alive in…

Ismāʿīl I

(568 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, founder of the Ṣafawī dynasty of Persia, born of a Ṣūfī family, settled in Ardabīl [q. v., i. 425 sq.] in Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān since the time of the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣafī al-Dīn, who was said to be descended from the imām Mūsā al-Kāẓim. He was the son of the s̲h̲aik̲h̲, Ḥaidar [q. v.]; after the death ¶ of his maternal grandfather, Uzun Ḥasan (about 883 = 1478), in the confusion of the anarchy that followed, supported on the one hand by the followers of his father and on the other by the seven Turkish tribes which had taken his side (Ustād̲j̲lu, S̲h̲amlu, T…

Esʿad Efendi

(66 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Muḥammed, nicknamed Hindī-Mollā, a Turkish official, son of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām ʿAbd Allāh Waṣṣāf, born in 1119 (1707), was imprisoned in Brusa with his father in 1168 (1754-1755), became Ḳāḍī-ʿasker of Anatolia in 1182 (1768-1769), of Rūmili in 1186 (1772) and 11…

Ḳawwās

(258 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Arabic word meaning originally archer, then arquebusier, finally, like the French archer, came to mean military police. The form ḳawwāṣ (with ṣād) is found in the 1001 Nights (Dozy, Suppl.). The word is applied in the Levant specially to the military police, called in French cawas or sometimes janissaires (because before the abolition of the latter, they were chosen from their ranks), detached to act as guards to embassies and consulates. They go in front of the head of the embassy or consulate when he goes into the town, whether officiall…

Kūfīya

(297 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in the dialects of Syria, keffiye, Cuche, Dict., p. 577; Burckhardt, Notes on the Bedouins, p. 27; G. Fesquet, Voyage en Orient, p. 185), an Arabic word borrowed from the Romance languages (Ital. cuffia, Span, cofia, Port, coifa, French coëffe, coiffe), the name of a silk handkerchief, ¶ which the Bedouins of the Syrian desert, as far as the region of Mecca, wear as a head-dress; it is kept on the head by a cord of camel-hair dyed black and fastened at intervals with cords of bright colours called ʿagāl (class. ʿiḳāl). This handkerchief is square-shaped, yellow, or yellow and green i…

Kārwān

(484 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(older former kar-bān, “He who protects trade”) the original of the word caravan, means in Persian a number of merchants who organise themselves into a body to defend themselves against robbers and brigands (Ar. ḳāfila). The beasts of burden are camels, horses and mules: the camels are usually arranged in files of seven animals ( ḳatār): the camel-driver rides on an ass at the head of the procession. The caravan drivers are slow and do not hurry, but their work is hard and trying; a man has often ten or twelve camels to watch and guide: sometimes thirty or forty are…

D̲j̲ilwa

(99 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
the ceremony of raising the bride’s veil, and the present made by the husband to the wife on This occasion. According to al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī who bases himself on Muḥyi ’l-Dīn al-ʿArabī ( Definitiones , ed. Flugel, 80, 294), d̲j̲ilwa is the name of the state in which the mystic is on coming out of the k̲h̲alwa: filled w…

Ḏj̲ān

(16 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, (Vedic, dhyāna), life, soul in the sense of vital principle ( anima) (Cl. Huart)
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