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Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(157 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, son of the ḳāḍī ʿaskar Walī al-Dīn, Ottoman poet of the time of Sultan Muḥammed II, was at first professor at the madrasa of Sultan Murād II in Brussa, ḳāḍī of Adrianople, afterwards tutor of the princes, and Vizier. He composed 33 g̲h̲azals, imitated from those of Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲ēr Newāyī. He died in 902 (1496) and was buried at Brussa, near the mosque which he had founded and whence he had been banished because of an immoral adventure. Sultan Bāyazīd II had commissioned him with the administra…

Ḳūrči

(134 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(from the Eastern Turkish, ḳūr, “guard, defence”, and suffix - či forming nouns indicating trades), he who bears arms, the sword, chief huntsman (Pavet de Courteille, Dict. Turk. Or., p. 425), armourer; sword-cutler; troop of cavalry; captain of the watch; leader of a patrol; gendarmerie; governor of a fortress or of a town (Sulaimān Efendi, Lug̲h̲at-i Ḏh̲ag̲h̲atāi, p. 232); sentry, sentinel, guard, inspector (Vambéry, Čag̲h̲ataische Sprachstudien, p. 316). Under the Ṣafawids, this word, borrowed by Persians, was applied to the bodyguard employed to protect the …

K̲h̲ūzistān

(675 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the land of the Ḵh̲ūz (Hussi), Κοσσαῖοι of Ptolemy, a province of Persia corresponding to the ancient Susiana, now officially called ʿArabistān, “the country of the Arabs”, because its desert plains have been over-run by the nomad tribes of the Kaʿb (Bedouin pronunciation Čaʿb) and of the Banū Lām. The present boundaries of the province are, to the North, the mountains of the Zagros chain; to the West, the Kerk̲h̲a [q. v.]; to the South, the river Ḏj̲errāḥī or Ṭāb and a line drawn across the d…

Čift

(95 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Turkish word (from the Persian d̲j̲uft, Avestan yuk̲h̲tā), meaning “pair”, “couple” and in particular, the “pair of oxen yoked to the plough”, whence it comes to mean “cultivated fields”, “ploughing”, and “the amount of ground ¶ that can be tilled by a pair of oxen in a day”. As an abbreviation for čift aḳčesi it means a definite tax on certain tributary land. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography M. d’Ohsson, Tableau de l’Empire Othoman, vol. vii. p. 234 Belin, Etude sur la Propriété Foncière, in the Journ. As., vth Ser. Vol. xix. 1862, p. 206.

ʿAlī

(2,863 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
b. Abī Ṭālib was a cousin and the son-in-law of the Prophet Muḥammed and the fourth orthodox caliph. His father, Abū Ṭālib, whose kunya concealed the heathen name ʿAbd Manāf, was the son of ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. Hās̲h̲im; his mother was called Fāṭima bint Asad b. Hās̲h̲im. ʿAlī received the surname Abū Turāb [q. v.] from Muḥammed, whose daughter Fāṭima he married. Concerning his descendants comp. ʿalides. He embraced Islām at an age which cannot be ascertained with exactitude, and, after Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a, was the first Muslim (Buraida b. al-Ḥuṣaib, ace. to Abū Ḏh̲arr…

Bostānd̲j̲i-Bās̲h̲i

(327 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, chief of the gardeners, a high official in the Sulṭān’s palace in Constantinople under the old régime, who commanded the bostānd̲j̲is. Under him were the k̲h̲āṣṣeki-ag̲h̲a, his representative and chief of the k̲h̲āṣṣeki (subordinate officers chosen from the bostānd̲j̲i and serving as a bodyguard), the od̲j̲aḳ-ketk̲h̲udāsi, the lieutenant-colonel, the kus̲h̲d̲j̲u-bās̲h̲i, inspector of the forests under the care of the bostānd̲j̲ibās̲h̲i, the tereked̲j̲i-bās̲h̲i, who collected the duties earmarked for this office and the revenues of the Imperial estates, the bostānd̲j̲ilar…

K̲h̲amsa

(146 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(abbreviated from wilāyāt-i k̲h̲amsa = the five provinces), the name of a province in Persia of which Zend̲j̲ān is the capital; Sulṭānīya also forms part of it. It is a small administrative division, forming quite recently a detached district of ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī; it lies between the provinces of Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān and Ḳazwīn and has 11,480 inhabitants. It appears in the Budget with the following statistics: revenue in cash 819,880 ḳrāns, in cereals 10,540 k̲h̲arwār (of 649 lbs.), in straw 9,000 k̲h̲ar…

Bālā Ḥiṣār

(60 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, popularly called Bāl-lu Ḥiṣār (Turk, “honey feast”), a market-town in Asia Minor in the Wilāyet and Sand̲j̲aḳ of Angora, Ḳazā of Siwri-Ḥiṣār, three hours’ journey distant from it, has 3000 inhabitants. There are the ruins of Pessinus with a Roman temple of Cybele. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography ʿAlī Ḏj̲awād, Ḏj̲og̲h̲rāfīyā Lug̲h̲āti, p. 150, Texier, Asie Mineure, p. 476.

Ābād

(66 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. — pehl. āpātān, from a hypothetical * ā- pāta), a Persian adjective signifying “flourishing“, speaking of a tract of land, and, subsequently, „inhabited, cultivated“ as opposed to „desert“; after that it is used as a substantive and appears in the composition of the names of a great number of places, such as Ruknābād, and of towns, especially in India: Aḥmedābād, Ḥaidarābād (Hyderabad), etc. (Cl. Huart)

S̲h̲īrāz

(633 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, capital of the province of Fārs in a vast plain to the south of Iṣpahān. It was conquered by Abu Mūsā al-As̲h̲ʿarī and ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Abi ’l-Āṣī at the end of the caliphate of ʿOmar; it was rebuilt by Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥakam b. Abī ʿAḳīl al-T̲h̲aḳafī, cousin and lieutenant of al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ in the reign of the Caliph Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik on the ruins of an ancient city which belonged to the province of Ardas̲h̲īr-Ḵh̲urra, the capital of which was Gar …

Ḳānūn-i Èsāsī

(610 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, “fundamental law”, the name given to the constitution of the Ottoman empire dated Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 7, 1293 (Dec. 24, 1876), promulgated by a k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲arīf of the same date addressed to the Grand Vizier Midḥat Pas̲h̲a. It maintains the order of succession of the family of ʿOt̲h̲mān and explicitly gives the Sulṭān the title of Ḵh̲alīfa (art. 3), protector of the Muslim religion (art. 4). It confirms his sacred and nonresponsible character (art. 5). It enumerates the rights of Ottoman subjects (art. 8—26), the duties and responsibilities of th…

Ḏj̲ān

(16 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, (Vedic, dhyāna), life, soul in the sense of vital principle ( anima) (Cl. Huart)

Anōs̲h̲arwān

(75 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Arabic form of the name assumed by Ḵh̲osraw I (Ṭabarī, ed. de Goeje, i. 862), Pehlevī anōs̲h̲ak-ruwān, Pāzend anōs̲h̲-ruān, ‘of immortal soul’; in Persian it has become Nūs̲h̲īrawān (Firdawsī), explained as nūs̲h̲īn-rawān, of gentle soul ( Burhān-i Ḳātiʿ). — It is also the name of a son of Manūčihr and a daughter of Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna, who was amīr of Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān from 420—434 (1029—1042; Ibn al-At̲h̲īr ix. 262 14). [cp. Nūs̲h̲irwān]. (Cl. Huart)

Bāyazīd II

(658 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ottoman Sulṭān, son of Muḥammad II, was governor of Amasia at the ¶ time of his father’s death; a revolt of the Janissaries assured him the throne by foiling the intrigues of the Grand Vizier Nis̲h̲ānī Muḥammad who favoured Ḏj̲em, his younger brother; he rewarded their services by making them a gift on his accession which became a regular custom after him (21st Rabīʿ I 886 = 20th May 1481). Ḏj̲em seized Brusa but being beaten on the field of Yeni-S̲h̲ehr (26th Rabīʿ II = 20th June) he fled to Ḳōnia and then to Syria and Egypt; after a pilgrimage to the holy towns he tried his f…

Feleke

(181 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, properly falaḳa, an instrument of torture, consisting of a wooden pole to the two extremities of which a cord is attached to form a bow; the legs of the victim are passed between the pole and the cord: the instrument is then turned round several times to bind them tightly and make criminal motionless. In this position he is beaten with a stick on the soles of the feet. Schoolmasters and heads of workshops use it to punish children and apprentices. In Turkey, when the Ag̲h̲a of Janissaries used to make his tour cf inspection in the capital, he was always accompanied by soldiers carrying the falaḳa, …

Dānaḳ

(113 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Dānāḳ, (Pahlavi, dānak, Pers. dāna, “corn”; cf. Pahlavi and Pers. dāng, Arm. dank, dang, Old Peis. δανάκη) a small weight and coin, the sixth part of a dīnār or of a dirham. Among the Meccans, the danāḳ was in the pagan period a weight of 8 2/5 ḥabba (barleycorns of average size); afterwards it was worth 3 1/8 ḳīrāṭ = 10 ḥabba (barleycorns) = 40 aruzza (grains of rice). In Spain it was as a rule worth: 2 ḳirāṭ (Casiri, Bibl. Ar. Hisp., i. 366 and also Golius). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography H. Sauvaire, Métrologie Musulmane, in the Journ. Asia t., viith Ser. xiv. 526 xv. 247 viiith Ser. iii. 412, 413.

K̲h̲irḳa

(386 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a.), „rag”, hence “a mystic’s coarse woollen robe”, because it was originally made up of pieces (synonym muraḳḳaʿa). „It is the inner ¶ flame ( ḥarḳa) which makes the Ṣūfī” said al-Hud̲j̲wīrī „not the religious dress” ( k̲h̲irḳa). This dress was the outward sign of the vow of poverty taken by the Ṣūfī; it was originally as a rule blue, the colour of mourning. Certain mystics, however, did not like to wear a special costume, saying that if a distinctive mark of this kind was adopted for God’s sake, it was useless, for God knows bes…

Baḳḳam

(87 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a.), Brazilwood, an Indian dyewood, obtained from the Caesalpinia sappan which, when decocted, gives a red dye, and is also used in therapeutics as a styptic and desiccant for cancer. The root yields a poison which works quickly; it is mentioned in a verse by al-Aʿs̲h̲ā. The dictionaries erroneously give it as a synonym of ʿandam which rather means “Dragon’s blood”, a kind of resin. Baḳḳam appears to be an arabicised word of foreign origin ( Lisān al-ʿArab, xiv. 318; Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, viii. 204). (Cl. Huart)

Fawd̲j̲

(93 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a.) “troop” is the name given since the reorganisation of the Persian army to the tactical unit of infantry, the battalion, which is commanded by a colonel ( sarhang) and sometimes by a brigadier-general of the third class sartip-i t̲h̲ālit̲h̲). Each battalion should contain 800 men but in practice is much below this figure. It is not denoted by a number but by the name of the city or tribe of its origin. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Polak, Persien, i. 42 Ṣaniʿ al-Dawla Muḥammad Ḥasan-Ḵh̲ān, Maṭlaʿ al-S̲h̲ams, p. 25 et seq. (section on infantry).

Kursī

(594 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Arabic loan-word from the Aramaic kurseyā (Syriac form; Hebrew: kissē; Nöldeke, Mandäische Grammatik, p. 128; S. Fraenkel, Devocabulis peregrinis, p. 22), throne. It is only found twice in the Ḳurʾān (ii. 256; xxxviii. 33); its occurrence in the first of these has given the verse the name of the Throne Verse ( āyat al-kursī); the reference is to the throne of God, which is large enough to embrace the heavens and the earth. In the second passage the reference is to the throne of Solomon. The use of two different words, ʿars̲h̲ and kursī, for the throne of God, very early troubled the…
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