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(253 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl
(Ar. ḥamala “to carry”), messenger, porter. In countries where the roads and means of transit are still very primitive, the porter is indispensable for the transport of all kinds of goods. In Muslim lands the ḥammāl are therefore numerous and much employed; sometimes they carry burdens, which in other countries would only be dispatched with the help of beasts of burden or conveyances. The simplest equipment used by the ḥammāl is a fairly thick rope which he ties round the object to be carried and thus keeps it firm on his back. But where the ḥammāl are ¶ organised into gilds as in Constanti…


(127 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, in Arabic, a “large body of men” also a “section of a caravan”; ihence in Turkish, since the reforms ( Tanẓīmāt), the general of a division in the army and vice-admiral in the fleet. This rank corresponds to that of Istanbolḳādīsi in the hierarchy of the ʿUlemāʾ, Rutbe-i ūlā (Ṣinf-i ewwelī) in the civil service and beylerbey of Rūmīlī in the ancient administrative organisation; there are also Birind̲j̲i Farīḳ (of the first class), whose rank is equal to that of the Bālā civil). The latter have the right to be called ʿOṭūfet-li (gracious) while the former have to be content with the title Seʿādet…


(211 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, kiyā, second Grand-Master of the Assassins or Ismāʿīlīs of Persia, born at Rūdbār, was after his admission to the sect entrusted by Ḥasan Ṣabbāḥ with the task of capturing the fortress of Lemser. He took it by surprise in the night of 20th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 495 (= 5th Sept. 1102) and held out there for 20 years. In Ṣafar 511 (June 1117) he was besieged by the Atābeg Nūs̲h̲tegīn S̲h̲īrgīr, ¶ general of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān Muḥammad. When Ḥasan Ṣabbāḥ fell sick in Rabīʿ II 518 = May—June 1124, he summoned Buzurgummīd to him and proclaimed him his successor, and after Ḥasan’s death on the 26th of the sam…


(130 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a religious order, founded by Sidi ʿAlī b. al-Ḥid̲j̲āzī b. Muḥammad, born at Baiyūm in Egypt in 1108 (1696). The order belongs to the Ḳādirīya. Its founder, muḳaddam of the Ḵh̲alwatīya, renewed the ritual of the Badawīya, to which he gave a more stimulating character and made stricter by more stringent exercises. There are settlements of this order in Arabia (Ḏj̲idda and Mecca) in the Euphrates and Indus valleys; the mother-Zāwiya is in a village near Cairo. The d̲h̲ikr of the order consists in calling out yā Allāh! with an inclination of the head and crossing of the hands on the…


(203 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, in Turkish, “girl”; the word is common to most dialects (Radloff, Opi̊t, ii., col. 818); it is also found in the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions where ḳiz-og̲h̲li̊ “daughter” is opposed to uri̊ og̲h̲li̊ “son” (W. Thomsen, i., E., 7, p. 99). Ḳiz-ḳulési, the “maiden’s tower”, is the name given to an old’ tower now surmounted by a lighthouse, built on a rock at the entrance to the Bosphorus, between Scutari and Ḥaider-pas̲h̲a. Europeans wrongly call it “Leander’s Tower”, erroneously applying to it the legend of Hero and Leander, the scene of which is properly the ¶ Straits of the Dardanelles. Ḳiz-tas̲h̲…


(492 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Turkish form of the Persian k̲h̲aftān, which is found in the S̲h̲āhnāma — cf. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir Bag̲h̲dādī, Lug̲h̲at-i S̲h̲āhnāma, ed. by Salemann under the title ʿAbdulqâdiri Bagdâdensis Lexicon Šahnâmianum, p. 79 — and Asadī’s Lug̲h̲at-i Furs, ed. P. Horn, p. 99; also Arabic k̲h̲aftān), was an upper garment worn in peace time, a kind of long tunic with sleeves, which in time of war was worn over the mailshirt (tabard). This word as well as the article of dress came quite early among the Arabs under the influence of Persian fashions. Cf. al-Ṭabarī ed. de Goeje, iii. 236, 14, sqq.; ʿArīb, p. 177…

Kör Og̲h̲lū

(362 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t., “son of the blind man”), the hero of a popular romance in prose mingled with verse of which there are Persian and Turkish recensions. He was, it is said, a Turkoman of the Tekke tribe named Rūs̲h̲ān son of Mīrzā Ṣarrāf who lived in the reign of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās II (1051—1077 = 1641—1666). He was born in the north of Ḵh̲orāsān and lived there in the second half of the xviiith century of our era. In the valley of Salmās (Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān) are still shown the ruins of the castle of Čāmli-bel built by him. He used to plunder the caravans on the road from Turkey to Pe…


(84 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(from the Armenian kōt̲h̲al, “wall, side”; Fraenkel, Aram. Fremdwörter, p. 223) in Persian means a mountain pass, a neck between two peaks. This word, which does not appear ia any Persian dictionary, is borrowed from Eastern Turkish, which took it from the Armenian; it is found in the Babūr-nāma, ed. Ilminsky, p. 99, l. 23; p. 100, l. 1; p. 172, l. 18; p. 166, l. 22; cf. Radlof, Opi̊t., ii., col. 1277; Pavet de Courteille, Dict. turk-oriental, p. 463. (Cl. Huart)


(534 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a dynasty of vassals of the Sāmānids [q. v.] which reigned over ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī and Ṭabaristān, then over Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān from 316 to 470 (928—1077). It took its name from Ziyār, father of Wardān S̲h̲āh ruler of Gīlān, who was the father of Mardāwīd̲j̲, its founder. The following is the genealogical table: 1. Mardāwīd̲j̲, see the separate article. 2. Was̲h̲mgīr, see the separate article. 3. His son Ẓahīr al-Dawla Abū Manṣūr Bīsutūn made peace with Rukn al-Dawla; he died in 366 (976) in the town of Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān. 4. Ḳābūs I, see the separate article. 5. Mīnūčihr,by arrangement with ʿAlāʾ al-Da…


(196 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the name given to the fundamental law of the Ottoman Empire promulgated by Sulṭān Muḥammad II on the advice of his Grand Vizier, Muḥammad of Caramania. It is divided into three sections called bāb (chapter), which treat respectively of the great dignitaries of the Empire, of customs and ceremonies and lastly of the fines for crimes and revenues set aside for special appropriations. ¶ Sulṭān Sulaimān completed these ordinances by issuing several Ḳanūn-nāmè’s. The one reorganised the administration of the military fiefs ( ziʿāmet, tīmār) established by Murād I; the second codifi…


(238 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Isaiah, son of Amos, a prophet sent to the Israelites in the reign of Sadīḳa (Sedecias, by confusion with Hezekiah), took part in the siege of Jerusalem under Sennacherib, announced to the king that his death had been postponed for fifteen years; the besiegers all perished except their king and five of his secretaries who took refuge in a cave. For 66 days the king of Judah made the prisoners walk round Jerusalem, giving them two loaves of barley each day as their food. According to Muḥammad b…


(143 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the Arabic form of the name of two Persian kings of the Sassanian dynasty, Ḵh̲usraw [q. v.] has become a general name for all the Persian kings; then it was given a broken plural akāsira (other forms: kusūr, akāsir, kasāsira). The only remaining monument of the town of al-Madāʾin (Seleucia-Ctesiphon) before its recent destruction ¶ by an earthquake was called Ṭāḳ-Kisrā “vault of Chosroes” and Īwān-Kisrā “audience-chamber of Chosroes” (Pietro della Valle, Fr. transl., Paris 1661, part 2, p. 64—68; Buckingham, Travels in Mesopotamia, i. 519; Edw. Yves, Voyage from England to India, Lond…


(143 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(pronounced ʿamas, Bākūra p. 23) cabbalistic word used by the Nuṣairīs; it is formed from the initials of the three names ʿAlī, Muḥammed and Salmān al-Fārisī, and symbolizes the manifestation of the trinity of maʿnā, ism and bāb, in the ¶ seventh and last era, the era of Muḥammed; ʿAlī is the incarnation of maʿnā, Muḥammed of ism, and Salmān that of bāb. It is called the ‘principle of right and justice’ by the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḵh̲alīl Numailī, and plays a great part in the ceremony of initiation; it is called the mystery ( sirr) of ʿams, and its meaning is revealed to the novice only by degrees. (Cl. Huart…


(85 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ḵh̲ān), a Persian poet, born in Kās̲h̲ān, descendant of Fatḥ ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān, the prince of poets, lived for long in Ḵh̲orāsān, then settled in Ṭeherān, where he lived a retired life only associating with mystics. He lived in the xixth century; we do not know the dates of his birth or death. Among his poems he wrote verses on the death of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh and the accession of Nāṣir al-Dīn. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Riḍā Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān, Mad̲j̲maʿ al-Fuṣaḥā, Vol. ii. p. 370—382.


(159 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Aḥmad b. Muḥammad), a Persian man of letters, a descendant of the S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist Imām Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār al-Ḳazwīnī, who died in 666 = 1268. His father, who was Ḳāḍī of Raiy, wrote poetry under the pseudonym Wiṣālī and died in 933 = 1527. Aḥmad al-G̲h̲affārī was likewise a Ḳāḍī and died in 975 = 1567 at Daibul (Sind) on the return journey from the pilgrimage to Mecca. He dedicated his Nigāristān (‘picture-gallery’), completed in 959 = 1552, to Tahmāsp I; it is a collection of anecdotes collected from works of different periods (lith. Bombay 1245 and…


(379 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t. “Red River”), the ancient Halys (῞ΑλυΣ), Alys (῎ΑλυΣ), the largest river in Asia Minor. It rises in the mountains which separate the wilāyet of Sīwās from that of Erzerūm, waters the towns of Zarra (4,530 feet high) and Sīwās (4,160 feet high), then enters the province of Angora where it meets the mountain of Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ and the Ḳod̲j̲a Dāg̲h̲ range which force it to make an immense detour of over 160 miles. Its course is at first south-east, then it turns northwards, and finally it reaches …

Karīm K̲h̲ān Zend

(582 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Muḥammad), a member of a family of no special distinction belonging to a tribe of the Lūr, was in reality king of Persia at the end of the xviiith century without having the title, as he always retained the surname of Wakīl (plenipotentiary), under which his name has remained popular. He was at first one of the lieutenants of the Bak̲h̲tiyārī general ʿAlī Mardān Ḵh̲ān who, taking advantage of the anarchy that followed the assassination of Nādir S̲h̲āh Afs̲h̲ār, seized Iṣfahān and placed on the throne the last scion of the Ṣafawī dynas…


(385 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Yāḳūt: Turs̲h̲īs̲h̲, Muḳaddasī: Turt̲h̲īt̲h̲, Turait̲h̲īt̲h̲), a town in Persia, capital of the district of Bus̲h̲t in the province of Nīs̲h̲ābūr, four or five stages from the latter town. It was destroyed in 530 (1136); its hereditary governor at that time was al-ʿAmīd Manṣūr (or Masʿūd) b. Manṣūr al-Zūr Ābādī; an enemy to the Bāṭinīya or Ismaʿīlīya, he summoned the Turks to aid him to defend his lands, but the latter behaved with their usual greed so that, not being able to continue the stru…

Taḳī Kās̲h̲ī

(96 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Taḳī al-Dīn Muḥammad b. S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Ḥusainī Kās̲h̲ānī, a Persian biographer, a native of the town of Kās̲h̲ān, died in 1016 (1607). He wrote in 985 (1577—78) the Ḵh̲ulāṣat al-As̲h̲ʿār wa-Zubdat al-Afkār, and wrote the preface to the Dīwān of Muḥtas̲h̲am, who was a poet of the time of S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl I and of Tahmāsp I. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Bland, J.R.A.S, ix. 126—134 Sprenger, Catal. Oudh., p. 13—46 Rieu, Catal. of Persian Mss., p. 1046’’ E. G. Browne, Literary History of Persia, ii. 370 W. Ivanow, Descriptive Catal. (Calcutta 1924), p. 298, 305.


(205 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Turkish “mountain of the priests”), a name given by the Ottomans to Olympus in Mysia, at the foot of which is built on the north the town of Brussa [q. v.]. Its slopes are covered with forests now much diminished; its summit is covered with snow which only melts in summer (height 6,200 feet). Its massif is formed of granite, marble and felspar. At the time of the Ottoman conquest, Olympus was covered with convents and hermits’ cells whence its Turkish name. The Christian monks were replaced…
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