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(270 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian word denoting an oval bowl of metal, wood or coconut (calabash), worn suspended by a chain from the shoulder, in which the dervishes put the alms they receive and the food which is given them. The etymology of this word is obscure; a popular one is given by the Persians: kas̲h̲ “draw” (imperative) and kūl “shoulder”, “what one draws over the shoulder”; but as we find a form k̲h̲ačkūl attested in the older poets (Anwārī, Sayf Isfarangī), this explanation can hardly be accepted. The dictionaries give as the first sense “beggar” and t…

Kay K̲h̲usraw

(455 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the third mythical ruler of the Iranian dynasty of the Kayānids [ q.v.], corresponding to Kavi Haosrovah of the religious tradition (see A. Christensen, Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 90-2 and index). He is reckoned as the son of Siyāwus̲h̲/Siyāwak̲h̲s̲h̲ [ q.v.] and the grandson, through his mother, of Afrāsiyāb [ q.v.], and according to the national tradition (Christensen, 114-17) was born after his father’s death and was brought up amongst the mountain shepherds of Ḳalū near Bāmiyān, in ignorance of his illustrious origin. This, however, s…

Köprü Ḥiṣāri̊

(120 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
“fortress of the bridge”, a village in the Ottoman province of K̲h̲udāwendigār [ q.v.] in northwestern Anatolia, and situated on the Čürük Ṣū river near Yeñis̲h̲ehir. It owes its historical fame to its being the site of a Byzantine fortress taken in 688/1289 by ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Ertog̲h̲rul, chief of the ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ group of Türkmens based on Eskis̲h̲ehir, after the previous capture of Biled̲j̲ik and during the course of the extension of Ottoman influence within the province towards Bursa [ q.v.]; cf. H. A. Gibbons, The foundation of the Ottoman empire, Oxford 1916, 32-3. (Cl. Huart) Bibliogr…


(922 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Turkish name for the Abazes (see abk̲h̲āz ), given as a surname to many persons in Ottoman history who descended from those people. 1) Ābāza pas̲h̲a , taken prisoner at the defeat of the rebel Ḏj̲anbulād, whose treasurer he was, was brought before Murād Pas̲h̲a and had his life spared only through the intercession of Ḵh̲alīl, ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries, who, having become ḳapūdān-pas̲h̲a , gave him the command of a galley, and conferred upon him the government of Marʿas̲h̲ when he was promoted to the dignity of grand vizier. Later he be…


(205 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) (a word which has passed into French in the form tabor ), from Eastern Turkī tapḳūr and ṭapḳūr , denoting a pallisade formed of waggons arranged in a circle or square; a body of troops sent out for reconnaissance; a battalion; or a body of about 1,000 men commanded by a biñbas̲h̲i̊ (chief of a thousand). In Morocco, from the mid-19th century, it denoted the first permanent military units. Under the French Protectorate, the term was applied to a group made up of several goums ( gūm , an armed group of ca. 150 men commanded by officers of the Indigenous Affairs Department), hence par…


(378 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t. “Red River”), the ancient Halys (῞Αλυς) or Alys(῎Αλυς), the largest river in Asia Minor. It rises in the mountains which separate the wilāyet of Sīwās from that of Erzerūm, waters the towns of Zarra (4,530 feet high) and Sīwās (4,160 feet high), then enters the province of Anḳara where it meets the mountain of Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ and the Ḳod̲j̲a Dāg̲h̲ range which force it to make an immense detour of over 160 miles. Its course is at first southeast, then it turns northwards, and finally it reaches t…


(244 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Āzerī Turkish “Red River”), the ancient Amardus, a river which flows through Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲an and enters the Caspian Sea forty miles east of Sefīd-Rūd, “White River”, at its junction with the river S̲h̲āh-Rūd at Mend̲j̲il. Its source lies in the province of Ārdilān, and it begins by crossing ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī to the north; its right-bank tributary is the Zand̲j̲ān, on the left it receives the Ḳara-göl at Miyāne, then it runs along the southern slopes of Elburz, describing a great arc 125 miles…

ʿĀdila K̲h̲ātūn

(159 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, daughter of Aḥmad Pas̲h̲ā, wife of Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a Mizrāḳli̊ ("Abū Laylā"), Ottoman governor of Bag̲h̲dād. During the lifetime of her husband she took part in the government of the province, holding audiences where the petitions were presented to her through the intermediary of an eunuch. She had also a mosque and a caravanseray built, bearing her name. When on the death of Sulaymān (1175/1761) power was about to slip from her hands, she stirred up against his successor, ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, first t…

Kay Kāʾūs

(471 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, mythical second king of the line of Kayānids [ q.v.] whose name contains twice over the royal title kay (Kay Ūs> Kāʾūs). His history has been delineated by A. Christensen from the Iranian religious tradition and from the national tradition echoed by the later Muslim historians ( Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 73-90, 108-14). This Islamic historical tradition makes him the son of Kay Abīwēh > Abīh (except for Balʿamī, Firdawsī and al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, who make him the son of Kay Kubād [ q.v.]). He was a warrior-king who, according to Firdawsī, led a campaign into Māzandarān, whi…

ʿAmīd al-Dīn al-Abzārī

(194 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
al-anṣāri , asʿad b. naṣr , minister and poet, hailing from Abzār, south of S̲h̲īrāz. He was in the service of Saʿd b. Zangī, atabeg of Fārs; was sent by his master as an ambassador to Muḥammad Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh, refused the offers which were made to him, succeeded Rukn al-Dīn Salāḥ Kirmānī as minister and held his position until the death of Saʿd. Saʿd’s son and successor, Abū Bakr, had him arrested on the charge of having held a correspondence with the ruler of Ḵh̲wārizm and of having acted as a spy for him. He was imprisoned in the fortress of Us̲h̲kunwān, near Iṣṭak̲h̲r and …


(224 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Gīlān-s̲h̲āh , ispahbad of Ṭabaristān, known as the Great ( buzurg ) and the Virtuous ( d̲h̲u ’l-manāḳib ), son of Dābūya, conquered Māzandarān and restored peace to the frontiers. When defeated by the Daylamīs in their revolt, he fled to Āmul and entrenched himself in the castle of Fīrūzābād; he saved himself by the ruse of making his besiegers believe that he had enormous stocks of bread. He gave asylum to the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs when they were being pursued by al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, but fought aga…


(180 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ḏj̲ūlūg̲h̲, a Persian poet born in Sīstān, a pupil of ʿUnṣurī. Ras̲h̲īd Waṭwāṭ has compared him with the Arabic poet Mutanabbī, on account of the simplicity of his style combined with the originality of his genius. He was the panegyrist of Sulṭān Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna and of the Emīr Abu ’l-Muẓaffar Ṭāhir b. Naṣr Čag̲h̲ānī, governor of Balk̲h̲. He wrote a treatise on the art of poetry entitled ((GAP)) d̲j̲umān al-Balāg̲h̲a. The Dīwān of his poems enjoyed a certain fame in Transoxiana but he was forgotten in Ḵh̲orāsān. He died in 429 (1038). His Dīwān was lithographed in Ṭe…


(95 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Turkish word (from the Persian d̲j̲uft, Avestan yuk̲h̲tā), meaning “pair”, “couple” and in particular, the “pair of oxen yoked to the plough”, whence it comes to mean “cultivated fields”, “ploughing”, and “the amount of ground ¶ that can be tilled by a pair of oxen in a day”. As an abbreviation for čift aḳčesi it means a definite tax on certain tributary land. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography M. d’Ohsson, Tableau de l’Empire Othoman, vol. vii. p. 234 Belin, Etude sur la Propriété Foncière, in the Journ. As., vth Ser. Vol. xix. 1862, p. 206.


(275 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a.), castle, fortress, citadel (from the Arabic ḥaṣara, “to compress, to surround in order to capture”; ḥāṣara “to enclose, to besiege”). Anadolu Ḥiṣār is the name of the fortress, now in ruins, built by the Ottoman Sulṭān Bāyazīd I Yildirim on the Bosphorus between Ḳandīl-lī and Gök-Ṣū (“the sweet waters of Asia”) to facilitate the siege of Constantinople; in conjunction with Rumili-Ḥiṣār, which Muḥammad II Fātiḥ built in 1452 opposite it, it completely commanded the passage and the latter actually earned its name Bog̲h̲āz-Kasan (throat-cutter), [see bog̲h̲āz, i. p. 737b]. Ḥiṣār is…


(118 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian work by Nūr al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Ḏj̲āmī in poetry and prose modelled on Saʿdi’s Gulistān, which also bears the title of Rawḍat al-ak̲h̲yār u tuḥfat al-abrār; it was composed in 892 (1487). It is divided into eight chapters called rawḍa and contains anecdotes of the life of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḏj̲unaid and other mystics, philosophers and poets as well as fables and parables. It has been supplied with Turkish commentaries by S̲h̲amʿi (between 982 and 987 = 1574 and 1579), by Ḵh̲ōd̲j̲a S̲h̲ākir (ed. Constantinople, 1252 = 1836) and tra…


(324 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Turkish word signifying, „usher” „doorkeeper”. It was formerly the name of a body of 630 court ushers employed in the various tribunals, who marched at the head of the procession at state ceremonials ( alāi-čaws̲h̲i, dīwān-čaws̲h̲i): ¶ their chief ( čaws̲h̲-bās̲h̲ī) was vice-president of the Grand Vizier’s court, minister of police, grand-master of ceremonies and introduced ambassadors. He also had command of a company of 200 gedikli zaʿīm, who carried orders to the provinces. He also supervised the farming out of taxes during for the lifetime of the purchase…

Fuʾād Pas̲h̲a

(602 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Muḥammad Kečed̲j̲i-Zāde), an Ottoman statesman, born in 1230 = 1815 ¶ in Constantinople, the son of the poet ʿIzzet Molla [q. v.], who mentions hitn in his Miḥnet-kes̲h̲ān, studied medicine after leaving the school of Galata-Serāi and entered the army medical service with the rank of yüzbās̲h̲i (captain) and was sent to Tripoli in North Africa. Returning in 1253 = 1837 to Constantinople, he entered the service of the Porte as interpreter, was sent to London in 1256 = 1840 as first secretary to the Embassy and in 1261 = 1845 attended the co…


(414 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. “joyful”), the name ofthe favourite ( k̲h̲āṣṣekī) of the Ottoman Sulṭān Sulaimān I, the Legislator, better known in European historians by the name of Roxelana. She was a slave of Russian origin (“altra donna di nation Rossa, giovine non bella ma grassiada” in the report by Piero Bragadino [1526], Marini Sanuto, xli.), who was the mother of three sons, Sulṭān Selīm II, princes Murād and Muḥammad and one daughter, Mihrimāh Sulṭāne. She was anxious to secure the succession to the throne for her eldest son and is accused of having…

ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ

(148 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Ḏj̲abalī b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲āmiʿ, a Persian poet, one of the panegyrists of the Seld̲j̲uḳ Sultan Sand̲j̲ar. A native of the province of G̲h̲ard̲j̲istān, he lived at first for some time at Herāt, and then went to G̲h̲azna, where he entered the service of Sultan Bahrām S̲h̲āh, son of Masʿūd, of the dynasty of the G̲h̲aznewides; after four years, when Sultan Sand̲j̲ar came to G̲h̲azna to support Bahrām S̲h̲āh, who was his first cousin on his mother’s side, he took advantage ¶ of the occasion to address an ode to him. It is said that he died in 555 (1160). His Dīwān was published at Lahore in 1862. (Cl. Huart…


(234 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, known in earlier times as Basā-Sīr, a town in Fārs, 4 days’ journey S. E. of S̲h̲īrāz, was the most important town in the district of Darābd̲j̲ird (Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, p. 97, 127); it was a well built town, with houses of clay and cypress wood, surrounded by a wall outside which lay a suburb in which the markets were. In the centre of the town was a mound formed of the ruins of an ancient tower of unbaked bricks, the moat of which still exists. It had at one time flourishing industries (the manufacture of various clothstuffs which were exported in large quantities, notably brocades, ṭirāz al-was̲h̲y and al-…
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