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(378 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t. “Red River”), the ancient Halys (῞Αλυς) or Alys(῎Αλυς), the largest river in Asia Minor. It rises in the mountains which separate the wilāyet of Sīwās from that of Erzerūm, waters the towns of Zarra (4,530 feet high) and Sīwās (4,160 feet high), then enters the province of Anḳara where it meets the mountain of Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ and the Ḳod̲j̲a Dāg̲h̲ range which force it to make an immense detour of over 160 miles. Its course is at first southeast, then it turns northwards, and finally it reaches t…


(270 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian word denoting an oval bowl of metal, wood or coconut (calabash), worn suspended by a chain from the shoulder, in which the dervishes put the alms they receive and the food which is given them. The etymology of this word is obscure; a popular one is given by the Persians: kas̲h̲ “draw” (imperative) and kūl “shoulder”, “what one draws over the shoulder”; but as we find a form k̲h̲ačkūl attested in the older poets (Anwārī, Sayf Isfarangī), this explanation can hardly be accepted. The dictionaries give as the first sense “beggar” and t…

Kay K̲h̲usraw

(455 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the third mythical ruler of the Iranian dynasty of the Kayānids [ q.v.], corresponding to Kavi Haosrovah of the religious tradition (see A. Christensen, Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 90-2 and index). He is reckoned as the son of Siyāwus̲h̲/Siyāwak̲h̲s̲h̲ [ q.v.] and the grandson, through his mother, of Afrāsiyāb [ q.v.], and according to the national tradition (Christensen, 114-17) was born after his father’s death and was brought up amongst the mountain shepherds of Ḳalū near Bāmiyān, in ignorance of his illustrious origin. This, however, s…


(922 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Turkish name for the Abazes (see abk̲h̲āz ), given as a surname to many persons in Ottoman history who descended from those people. 1) Ābāza pas̲h̲a , taken prisoner at the defeat of the rebel Ḏj̲anbulād, whose treasurer he was, was brought before Murād Pas̲h̲a and had his life spared only through the intercession of Ḵh̲alīl, ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries, who, having become ḳapūdān-pas̲h̲a , gave him the command of a galley, and conferred upon him the government of Marʿas̲h̲ when he was promoted to the dignity of grand vizier. Later he be…


(205 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) (a word which has passed into French in the form tabor ), from Eastern Turkī tapḳūr and ṭapḳūr , denoting a pallisade formed of waggons arranged in a circle or square; a body of troops sent out for reconnaissance; a battalion; or a body of about 1,000 men commanded by a biñbas̲h̲i̊ (chief of a thousand). In Morocco, from the mid-19th century, it denoted the first permanent military units. Under the French Protectorate, the term was applied to a group made up of several goums ( gūm , an armed group of ca. 150 men commanded by officers of the Indigenous Affairs Department), hence par…

ʿAmīd al-Dīn al-Abzārī

(194 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
al-anṣāri , asʿad b. naṣr , minister and poet, hailing from Abzār, south of S̲h̲īrāz. He was in the service of Saʿd b. Zangī, atabeg of Fārs; was sent by his master as an ambassador to Muḥammad Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh, refused the offers which were made to him, succeeded Rukn al-Dīn Salāḥ Kirmānī as minister and held his position until the death of Saʿd. Saʿd’s son and successor, Abū Bakr, had him arrested on the charge of having held a correspondence with the ruler of Ḵh̲wārizm and of having acted as a spy for him. He was imprisoned in the fortress of Us̲h̲kunwān, near Iṣṭak̲h̲r and …


(99 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
the ceremony of raising the bride’s veil, and the present made by the husband to the wife on This occasion. According to al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī who bases himself on Muḥyi ’l-Dīn al-ʿArabī ( Definitiones , ed. Flugel, 80, 294), d̲j̲ilwa is the name of the state in which the mystic is on coming out of the k̲h̲alwa: filled with the emanations of divine attributes, his own personality has disappeared and mingles with the being of God (cf. Guys, Un derviche Algérien , 203). One of the two sacred books of the Yazīdīs is called Kitāb al-Ḏj̲ilwa [ q.v.]. (Cl. Huart)

Köprü Ḥiṣāri̊

(120 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
“fortress of the bridge”, a village in the Ottoman province of K̲h̲udāwendigār [ q.v.] in northwestern Anatolia, and situated on the Čürük Ṣū river near Yeñis̲h̲ehir. It owes its historical fame to its being the site of a Byzantine fortress taken in 688/1289 by ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Ertog̲h̲rul, chief of the ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ group of Türkmens based on Eskis̲h̲ehir, after the previous capture of Biled̲j̲ik and during the course of the extension of Ottoman influence within the province towards Bursa [ q.v.]; cf. H. A. Gibbons, The foundation of the Ottoman empire, Oxford 1916, 32-3. (Cl. Huart) Bibliogr…


(224 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Gīlān-s̲h̲āh , ispahbad of Ṭabaristān, known as the Great ( buzurg ) and the Virtuous ( d̲h̲u ’l-manāḳib ), son of Dābūya, conquered Māzandarān and restored peace to the frontiers. When defeated by the Daylamīs in their revolt, he fled to Āmul and entrenched himself in the castle of Fīrūzābād; he saved himself by the ruse of making his besiegers believe that he had enormous stocks of bread. He gave asylum to the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs when they were being pursued by al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, but fought aga…


(244 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Āzerī Turkish “Red River”), the ancient Amardus, a river which flows through Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲an and enters the Caspian Sea forty miles east of Sefīd-Rūd, “White River”, at its junction with the river S̲h̲āh-Rūd at Mend̲j̲il. Its source lies in the province of Ārdilān, and it begins by crossing ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī to the north; its right-bank tributary is the Zand̲j̲ān, on the left it receives the Ḳara-göl at Miyāne, then it runs along the southern slopes of Elburz, describing a great arc 125 miles…

ʿĀdila K̲h̲ātūn

(159 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, daughter of Aḥmad Pas̲h̲ā, wife of Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a Mizrāḳli̊ ("Abū Laylā"), Ottoman governor of Bag̲h̲dād. During the lifetime of her husband she took part in the government of the province, holding audiences where the petitions were presented to her through the intermediary of an eunuch. She had also a mosque and a caravanseray built, bearing her name. When on the death of Sulaymān (1175/1761) power was about to slip from her hands, she stirred up against his successor, ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, first t…

Kay Kāʾūs

(471 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, mythical second king of the line of Kayānids [ q.v.] whose name contains twice over the royal title kay (Kay Ūs> Kāʾūs). His history has been delineated by A. Christensen from the Iranian religious tradition and from the national tradition echoed by the later Muslim historians ( Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 73-90, 108-14). This Islamic historical tradition makes him the son of Kay Abīwēh > Abīh (except for Balʿamī, Firdawsī and al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, who make him the son of Kay Kubād [ q.v.]). He was a warrior-king who, according to Firdawsī, led a campaign into Māzandarān, whi…

Ḏj̲aʿfar Čelebi

(264 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Ottoman poet, whose father Tād̲j̲ī-Bey was attached to the personal service of Sulṭān Bāyazīd II, while the latter was governor of Amasia in the lifetime of his father Muḥammad II, displayed precocious talent and was therefore appointed Mudarris in Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a’s school in Constantinople; from this post he was called to fill the office of Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲ī (secretary to the Dīwān) and Bāyazīd appointed him supervisor of the Defterdārs, at the same time giving him the rank of Pas̲h̲a, whence the name Nishānd̲j̲ī Pas̲h̲a by which he was popularly kno…

Bahāʾ Allāh

(432 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(“splendour of God”), surname of Mīrzā Ḥusain ʿAlī Nūrī, born at Nūr in Māzāndarān on the 12th November 1817, half-brother ¶ of Mīrzā Yaḥyā surnamed Ṣubḥ-i Azal, was almost thirty years of age when he became a convert to the new doctrine preached by the Bāb [see Bābī]. Without having ever seen him he became one of the Bāb’s chief disciples and was recognised as his successor by the greater part of the Bābīs. After the attempt on the life of the S̲h̲āh he was imprisoned in Teherān: he was then exiled and settled in …

ʿĀlī Pas̲h̲a

(388 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Muḥammed Emīn, Turkish diplomatist and statesman, was born at Constantinople in Rabīʿ I 1230 (Feb. 1815). He was a pupil of Ras̲h̲īd Pas̲h̲a, chargé d’affaires at London (1838), ambassador (1841), president of the Tanẓīmāt (reform) Wezīr Council, Grand (1855), plenipotentiary at the Congress of Paris (1856) while the Ḵh̲aṭṭ-i humāyūn was being proclaimed (Feb. 18), the result of his efforts and those of Fuʾād Pas̲h̲a; Grand Wezīr 1857 and 1861, and also in 1867; went to Crete in person to treat with the insurgents (Oct. 4), but without success…


(146 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Ḵh̲ātūn, a daughter of Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a and wife of Sulaimān Pas̲h̲a, an Ottoman governor of Bagdad. In her husband’s lifetime, she took part in the government of the province, had her audience days, in which the petitions of private persons were presented to her through the intermediary of one of her eunuchs. She had a mosque and a caravansera built and gave them her name. Seeing that the sway was escaping her after the death of Sulaimān, she incited against his successor ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a the Janizary…


(1,003 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(from the Arabic amm a, “to precede, to lead”) originally “leader”, particularly “caravan leader, any one who guides a column of camels,”, a synonym of ḥādī; whence also a person or thing who serves as a guide or pattern, e. g. to the pupil in the school ( Lisān, xiv. 291). In the Ḳurʾān, the word is found in the meaning of example, leader, pattern, model, or prototype (ii. 118; xv. 79; xxv. 74; xxxvi. II). Since the foundation of the Muslim community, the term has been applied to the person who indicates the ritual movements of each rakʿa to the believers assembled in rows for the canonical service ( ṣ…


(117 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(the ancient Cucusus), a village in Turkey in Asia, the capital of a nāḥiya of the ḳaẓā of Andrln in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Marʿas̲h̲ in the province of Aleppo. It lies in a low, swampy plain, surrounded by argilaceous hills and consists only of huts built of tree-trurks. On the heights there still stand the ruins of several Armenian castles; the land around is almost entirely desert St. Chrysostom spent some time here in ¶ 404 a. d. during his exile. During the first Crusade the Franks spent three days in Göksün (Cocson, Cosor), as they found ample supplies here. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Ch. Texier, Asi…

Čelebi Zāde

(146 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, ʿĀṣim Efendi Ismāʿīl, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām and Turkish historian, son of the Raʾīs-Efendi Küčük-Čelebi whence the name by which he is known; he was first of all a judge and teacher of law, was later appointed historiographer to the Ottoman kingdom in place of Ras̲h̲īd (1130 = 1717), became successively Ḳāḍī in Brusa ¶ (1152 = 1739), Medīna (1157 = 1744), and Constantinople (1161 = 1748) and finally S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām (1172 = 1758), which office he held till his death eight months later. His history (printed at Constantinople in 1153 = 1740) cove…


(434 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian S̲h̲āh of the Ḳād̲j̲ār dynasty, was born in 1185 (1771), succeeded his uncle Āḳā Muḥammad-S̲h̲āh in 12(2 (1797) on the throne and died in 1250 (1834) after a reign of 38 years and five months (which won him the title Ṣāḥib-ḳirān) and was buried in Ḳumm. He was at first known as Bābā-Ḵh̲ān. The murder of Āḳā Muḥammad had thrown the army into the greatest confusion; Mīrzā Muḥammad-Ḵh̲ān Ḳād̲j̲ār closed the gates of Ṭeherān till the arrival of Bābā-Ḵh̲ān who was then in S̲h̲īrāz; he was at once proclaimed king but only enthroned…
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