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Emporia

(69 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] As Emporia in a strict sense are to be understood all the cities of the Syrtis Minor but in a broader sense the cities of the Syrtis Minor and the Byssatis or the Syrtis Minor and the Tripolitania or the Syrtis Minor, the Byssatis and the Tripolitania. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography A. Bresson, P. Rouillard (ed.), L'emporion, 1993 R. Rebuffat, Où étaient les emporia?, in: Semitica 39, 1990, 111-126.

Cephalae

(46 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κεφαλαί; Kephalaí). Foothills (literally ‘heads’), marking the western entrance to the Great Syrte, modern Cape Mesrâta or Râs Bou-Chaifa. Str. 17,3,19; Plut. Dion 25,8; Ptol. 4,3,13; Stadiasmus maris magni 92 (GGM I 460). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Kees, s.v. K., RE 11, 190.

Zygritai

(48 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζυγρῖται; Zygrîtai). Libyan people to the west of Catabathmus and to the east of the Chattani (Ptol. 4,5,22), approximately in the area of Sidi Barrani (in modern Libya). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 174  M. Leglay, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 857.

Oea

(319 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni (neo-Punic Wjt). City on the coast of Africa Tripolitania between Sabratha and Leptis Magna, modern Tripoli. Evidence: Mela 1,37; Plin. HN 5,27; 38; Sil. Pun. 3,257; Ptol. Geog. 4,3,12 (Ἐῶα; Eôa); It. Ant. 62,2 ( Ocea colonia); Tab. Peut. 7,3 ( Osa colonia); Stadiasmus maris magni 98f. (GGM 1,463f.). Probably a Phoenician foundation [1. 36, 74]. Colonists from Africa and Sicily participated in the later expansion of the city (Sil. Pun.…

Nigritae

(142 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νιγρῖται; Nigrîtai). Following the Periplus of Ophelas (?), Str. 17,3,3 maintains that, together with the Pharusii, the N. lived a 30 days' journey from Lynx (Lix [1], present-day Larache). Str. 2,5,33 places them - like the Pharusii and Garamantes - in the regions which lie between the Gaetuli and the Aethiopes. In warfare the N., the Pharusii and the Aethiopes made use of bows as well as chariots with sickle-shaped blades attached to the axles. References: Str. 17,3,7 (Νίγρητες)…

Curubis

(76 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in the Africa Proconsularis, situated on the east coast of the Bon Peninsula, modern Korba. At the time of Caesar it was a colonia. Literary evidence: Plin. HN. 5,24; Ptol. 4,3,8 (Κουραβίς, Κούροβις); It. Ant. 56,7; 57,5; 493,9. Inscription.: CIL VIII 1, 977-981; Suppl. 1, 12451-12453; Suppl. 4, 24099-24102; [1. 386].  Cap Bon Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Bull. Archéologique du Comité des Travaux Historiques 1930-1931. S. Lancel, E. Lipiński, s.v. Cap Bon, DCPP, 88f.

Uthina

(183 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City (probably of Libyan origin) in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]; Plin. HN. 5,29; Ptol. 4,3,34; 8,14,11; Tab. Peut. 5,5 incorrectly Uthica) some 30 km to the south of Carthage, modern Oudna, with many archaeological remains (triumphal arch, temple, theatre, thermal baths, amphitheatre). It remains questionable whether U. is identical to Adys (Pol. 1,30,5; [1. 89]), where in 256 BC Carthaginians and Romans for the first time came into conflict on African soil. Caesar or the later Augustus founded in U. a colonia for the veterans of the Thirteenth Legion.…

Gir

(72 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] River that has its source in the high Atlas Mountains, presumably the Oued Guir. C.  Suetonius Paullinus advanced to it with his troops in AD 42. References: Plin. HN 5,15 ( Ger); Ptol. 4,6,13; 16; 31 (Γείρ; Geír); Geogr. Rav. p. 2,69; 3,14; 36,28; 37,11 ( Ger); Claud. Carm. 21,252 ( Gir); Anon. Geographia Compendiaria 31 (GGM II 502; Γίρ; Gír). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Dessau, s.v. G., RE VII 1, 1366.

Apisa Maius

(69 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis; the modern Henchir Tarf ech-Chena. In AD 28 A. was led by two   sufetes with Punic names and surnames; from the 3rd cent. AD a   municipium . Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography Inscriptions: CIL V 1, 4921; 8,1, 774-791; Suppl. 1, 12233-12240; Suppl. 4, 23843-23846. AATun 50, folio 34, no. 111 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine au Bas-Empire 2, 1981, 68-70.

Naraggara

(172 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis, 33 km to the northwest of Sicca Veneria, modern Sidi Youssef. The name, a Libyan inscription [1.570] and a bilingual one in Latin and Neo-Punic  (CIL VIII 1, 4636 = Suppl. 1, 16811 = ILAlg 1,1186) suggest a pre-Roman origin for the city. Evidence: Ptol. 4,3,30 (Ναράγγαρα/ Narángara); Itin. Anton. 41,5; 44,7 ( N.); Tab. Peut. 4,4 ( N.); Geogr. Rav. 39,18 ( Narragara). N. was a city by Roman Law (CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 18085; ILAlg 1,1189). Cultic worship of the Berber god Iocolon (ILAlg 1,1184) and the Punic-Roman goddes…

Lambiridi

(93 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Settlement in Numidia between Lambaesis and Lamasba, modern Kherbet Ouled Arif. Literary evidence: Tab. Peut. 3,1 ( Lambiridi); Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 44 ( Lamuiridi oppidum); Concilia Carthaginiensia anno 411, 1,206,32 ( episcopus Lambiriditanus); Not. episcoporum Numidiae 19a ( Iamuiritanus). L. was a municipium in the 3rd cent. AD. Some ruins are preserved - including a grave with a mosaic, opinions vary as to its interpretation [1. 464]. Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 1, 4413-4435; Suppl. 2, 18564-18584. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 M. Le …

Maxula

(185 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Μαξοῦλα/ Maxoûla). City in the province of Africa proconsularis ( Africa [3]), to the east of Tynes, modern Radès. Sources: Ptol. 4,3,7 (Μαξοῦλα/ Maxoûla); 4,3,34 (Μαξοῦλα παλαιά/ Maxoûla palaiá); It. Ant. 57,3 ( M. Prates); 58,1 ( M. Civitas); Tab. Peut. 6,1; Stadiasmus Maris Magni 122f. (GGM 1,471); Geogr. Rav. 88,38. Since it was located by the sea, it is possible that at times the Greeks (also) called it Leukòs Týnes (Λευκὸς Τύνης, Diod. Sic. 20,8,7) [1. 66-68]. Traces of Punic influence have been fo…

Barke

(197 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Colonization | Crete (Βάρκη; Bárkē). Greek city in  Cyrenaica, 97 km north-east of Benghasi, today Barka, founded by Cyrenaicans in the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Grain and   silphion allowed B. to reach its peak quickly. (Sources: Hdt. 3,13; 3,91; 4,160-205; Aen. Tact. 37,6f.; Heraclid. Pont. 4,2 (FHG II 212); Ps.-Scyl. 108 (GGM I 83); FGrH 115 Theopompus of Chios F 103; Diod. Sic. 1,68,2; 18,20,3; Sil. Pun. 2,62; 3,251; Polyaenus, Strat. 7…

Garamantes

(206 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A Berber tribe in the Libyan interior centered on  Garama. References: Hdt. 4,174; 183,1-184,1; Str. 2,5,33; 17,3,19; 23; Liv. 29,33,9; Mela 1,23; 45; Plin. HN 5,26; 36; 38; 6,209; 8,142; 178; 13,111; Flor. Epit. 2,31; Ptol. 1,8,5-7; 9,9; 10,2; 4,6,16; Solin. 29,7; 30,2; Arnob. 6,5; Tab. Peut. 7,4; Amm. Marc. 22,15,2; Oros. 1,2,88; 90; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 48; B 47; Chronicum Alexandrinum in: Chron. min. 1, p. 107,167; Isid. Orig. 9,2,128; Geogr. Rav. p. 36,22-40. The influence of the G., who perhaps included a sub-Saharan racial element, exten…

Rapidum

(175 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Limes City in Mauretania (III. B.) Caesariensis, about 24 km to the west of Auzia on the Limes (Limes VIII.C., with map), modern Sour Djouab (It. Ant. 30,7: Rapidi; 38,9: Rapido castra). In AD 122 Hadrianus founded a castrum at R. (CIL VIII suppl. 3, 20833). In 167 the veterani et pagani consistentes aput R. ('veterans and farmers at R.') built the walls of the city adjacent to the castrum  (CIL VIII suppl. 3, 20834 f.). After being destroyed more than once, R., then a municipium , was rebuilt by Diocletianus…

Tubusuctu (Thubuscum)

(190 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Sitifensis (Plin. HN 5,21; Ptol. 4,2,31; 8,13,12; Amm.  Marc. 29,5,11), about 30 km to the southwest of Saldae in the Oued Soummam valley, modern Tiklat. Although founded as a colonia by the later Augustus for veterans of the legio VII, T. adopted the (neo-)Punic traditions of the surrounding area. In the late Roman period the centre of a military district (Not. Dign. Occ. 25,27; [1. 52]). In T.'s territory there was significant olive cultivation. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8834-8921; Suppl. 3, 20648-20…

Rusguniae

(223 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Name of Cap Matifou, which encloses the Bay of Algiers in the northeast, and the Punic base near the cape, modern Tamentfoust. [1. 379] explains the name with Rš-gnj = 'Cap du Francolin'. Evidence: Ruthisia (?), Mela 1,31; colonia Augusti R., Plin. HN 5,20; Ῥουστόνιον/ Rhoustónion, Ptol. 4,2,6; R. colonia, It. Ant. 16,1; Rusgume, Geogr. Rav. 40,43; Rugunie, Geogr. Rav. 88,13; Rusgimia, Guido, Geographia 132,22. R. became a colonia through deductio of legio IX Gemella before AD 27 [2]. Inscriptions: CIL VIII…

Chullu

(137 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Phoenicians, Poeni (Κούλλου; Koúllou). Coastal town in the province of Numidia, modern Collo. (Sources: Ptol. 4,3,3; It. Ant. 19,1; Tab. Peut. 3,2; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia 44,29; Geogr. Rav. 40,21; Guido 132,32). Mentioned by Solin. (26,1) because of its purple dye works, C. was possibly a Phoenician or Punic foundation, and in any case, under strong Punic influence [1. 343-368]. Under the governorship of P. Sittius it became a colonia Minervia, and later constituted one of the quattuor coloniae Cirtens…

Vaga

(160 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]; cf. Str. 17,3,12; Plin. HN 5,29) 35 km to the north of Thugga, modern Béja, with a number of ancient remains (city wall, basilica). In the second of the Punic Wars. V. apparently supplied troops for the Carthaginian contingent (Sil. Pun. 3,259). No later than after the third Punic War, V. fell to Massinissa. During the War of Iugurtha, V. was conquered by Caecilius [I 30] Metellus (Sall. Iug. 29,4; 47,1; 66-69). It was probably Septimius [II 7] Severus, who elevated V. to a coloni…

Nias

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νίας/ Nías). River in western Africa, probably in Senegal (Ptol. 4,6,7). The N. is probably correctly identified with the Chretes of Hanno (Χρέτης/ Chrétēs, Hanno, Periplus 9, GGM 1,8), the Chremetes of Aristotle (Χρεμέτης/ Chremétēs, Aristot. Mete. 1,13 p. 350b) and the Bambotus (Plin. HN 5,10) [1. 776, 8147]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Huß. F. Windberg, s.v. Nias, RE 17, 165-167.
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