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Abū Bayhas

(143 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M.Th.
al-Hayṣam b. Ḏj̲ābir , Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite, of the Banū Saʿd b. Ḍubayʿa. In order to escape from the persecution of al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, he fled to Medina, but was arrested by the governor, ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Ḥayyān, and cruelly executed (94/713). He gave his name to the Bayhasiyya, one of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite sects, who occupied an intermediate position between the strict Azraḳīs and the milder Ṣufrīs and Ibāḍīs. The Bayhasīs, though admitting that Muslims of different ¶ opinion from their own were unbelievers, considered it permissible to live amongst them, to intermarry with the…

ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd b. ʿAbd al-G̲h̲afūr al-Ḥusaynī al-Madanī al-Tattawī

(120 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M.Th.
, Persian lexicographer, born in Tatta, but a Sayyid by descent; died after 1069/1658. His principal work is a Persian dictionary, usually called Farhang-i Ras̲h̲īdī , or Ras̲h̲īdī Fārsī , the first critical dictionary, which was compiled in 1064/1683-4 and published in 1875 in the Bibliotheca Indica . Splieth revised the preface ( Muḳaddama ): Grammaticae persicae praecepta ac regulae (Halle 1846). ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd dedicated an Arabic-Persian dictionary, Muntak̲h̲ab al-Lug̲h̲āt , or Ras̲h̲īdī ʿArabī ( 1046/1636-7), to S̲h̲āhd̲j̲ahān (editions: Calcutta 1808, 1816, 183…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(220 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Abī Bekr Abū ʿAbd Allāh, son of the first caliph. His mother, Umm RiimSn, was also that of ʿĀʾis̲h̲a. His original name is said to have been ʿAbd al-Kaʿba, which was changed to ʿAbd al-Raḥmān only on his conversion, which took place very late, for he fought side by side with the Meccans at Bedr. ¶ Ḳorʾān, xlvi. 16 is therefore said to refer to him. He accompanied his sister in the battle of the Camel and was later on with ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣī when the latter marched against his brother, Muḥammed b. Abī Bekr, the governor of Egypt, but ʿAbd al-Raḥmān wa…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(246 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Ḳaṭan b. Nufail b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Fihrī, successor of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd Allāh [q. v.] as governor of Spain. It was not on account of his crimes and extortions but for political reasons that in 116 (end of 734) he was forced to abdicate his position in favor of ʿOkba b. al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ al-Salūlī. When, however, the latter in 123 (741) fell dangerously ill during an uprising of the Berbers in Africa, he found himself obliged to restore ʿAbd al-Malik to his former post. Meanwhile the troops sent…

Abu ’l-Dardāʾ

(93 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī al-Anṣārī, one of the younger contemporaries of Muḥammed; his real name was according to some ʿUwaimir, according to others ʿĀmir. His father’s name, too, is diversely given. He was late converted to Islām, so that it is doubtful whether he took part in the battle of Oḥod, but afterwards became one of the greatest Ḳorʾān scholars. Under ʿOt̲h̲mān he was the public prayer-reader and ḳāḍī in Damascus, where he died in 31 (652) or a few years later. (M. Th. Houtsma) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Usd al-g̲h̲āba, iv. 159 v. 185.

Abū ʿAbd Allāh

(341 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
al-Muḥtasib or al-S̲h̲īʿī, as he is also called, the establisher of the Fāṭimide rule in Africa. His real name was al-Ḥusain b. Aḥmed b. Muḥammed, and was a native of Ṣanʿā ʾ in Yemen; his surname al-Muḥtasib is said to be due to the fact that he was a market ¶ overseer [ Muḥtasib) in al-Baṣra or somewhere else in the ʿIrāḳ. Later on he was chosen by the Ismāʿīlīya propaganda to work amongst the Berbers as an emissary. He therefore made the acquaintance of some Berber pilgrims in Mecca and was taken by them to their native country. In 280 (893), o…

ʿAbd Allāh

(101 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. T̲h̲awr, usually called Abū Fudaik, a Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite of the Banū Ḳais b. T̲h̲aʿlaba, after he had killed Nad̲j̲da b. ʿĀmir [q. v.] obtained the dominion over al-Baḥrain in the year 72 (691). He put to flight the troops sent against him from Baṣra, but was himself in 73 (693) vanquished and slain by the troops which ʿAbd al-Malik had sent against him. (M. Th. Houtsma) Bibliography Mubarrad, Kāmil, p. 662 Ṭabarī, ii. 829, 852 et seq. Anonyme Arab. Chronik (ed. Ahlwardt), pp. 143 et seq. Brünnow, Die Charidschiten, pp. 47 et seq. Wellhausen, Die religiös-politischen Oppositionsparteien, p. …

ʿAbd Allāh

(451 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Maimūn, well-known sectarian, died about 261 (874-875), came originally from al-Ahwāz. His father Maimūn practiced as an oculist in that place, whence his name Maimūn al-Ḳaddāḥ. In that district there dominated since long heretical religious views hostile to Islām, and the oculist appears indeed to have had relations with the Ḵh̲aṭṭābīya [q. v.] and the Bardesanians [q. v.]. The son became a learned theologian, who according to Maḳrīzī examined nearly all religious systems and evolved one of h…

ʿAbbās Efendi

(131 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
, eldest son of Bahāʾ Allāh [q. v.] and spiritual leader of the party among the Bābis that had rallied to his father, and who were therefore called the party of the Bahāʾis. He assumed his dignity on the death of his father in 1892, and, like the latter, resided at Akka. He is spoken of in the writings of the Bābis under the mystic name of G̲h̲uṣn-i Aʿẓam (Branch of the Most High), and also under that of Aḳa-yi Sirr Allāh (Aḳa, Mystery of God). He wrote a history of the Bāb, published by Browne under the title of A Traveller’s narrative to illustrate the episode of the Bāb (Cambridge, 1891); comp. Brow…

al-ʿAbbās

(119 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. al-Ḥasan (al-Ḥusain?) al-S̲h̲īrāzī Abu ’l-Faḍl. On the death of al-Muhallabī [q. v.] in 352 (963), he was entrusted by the Būyide Muʿizz al-Dawla with the care of the government conjointly with Ibn Fasānd̲j̲as. On the death of Muʿizz al-Dawla (356 = 967) he became vizier to the latter’s son Bak̲h̲tiyār, who, in 358, for the purpose of extorting money from him and his people, dismissed him for some time, but afterwards reappointed him to his office. Four years later (362 = 973), he was again dismis…

Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭāb

(155 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
Muḥammed b. Abī Zainab (al-Maḳrīzī: T̲h̲awr or Yazīd) al-Asadī, called al-Ad̲j̲daʿ („the mutilated“), a Mussulman sectarian. At first he was one of the adherents of Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ [q. v.], but afterwards, as he declared the latter (as the Imāms in general) to be ¶ a prophet, even a divine being, on account of which he was disavowed by him, he claimed for himself what he had asserted as belonging to the ʿAlide, and won over many followers, who, according to al-Maḳrīzī, were classed in not less than 50 sects, and all together united und…

Ṭug̲h̲ri̊lbeg

(1,418 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
, Rukn al-Dīn Abū Ṭālib Muḥammad b. Mīkāʾīl, the first Seld̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān, 429—455 (1038—1063). For the beginnings of Seld̲j̲ūḳ power, the rise of Ṭug̲h̲ri̊lbeg and of his brother Čag̲h̲rībeg, the reader may be referred to the article on the latter. Here we begin with the year 429 (1038) when Ṭug̲h̲ri̊lbeg entered Naisābūr and his name was mentioned in the k̲h̲uṭba there. Al-Baihaḳī, p. 691, gives interesting details of this. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr and others say that as early as this he received an envoy from the Caliph, who complained of the robberies of the ru…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(226 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Ḥabīb b. Abī ʿUbaida b. ʿOḳba b. Nāfiʿ al-Fihrī, governor of Ifrīḳīya, died in 137 (755). When his father, whom he had in his youth accompanied on raids in Sicily and other places, had fallen in the Berber revolt (142 = 740), ʿAbd al-Raḥmān fled to Spain, but afterwards returned to Africa and rebelled in Tunis in 126 (744) against the Umaiyads. The Umaiyad governor Ḥanẓala b. Ṣafwān thereupon quitted Ḳairawān, and since the ʿAbbāside uprising was in progress, it was not a very difficult task for ʿAbd …

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(181 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. ʿAwf, a Ḳorais̲h̲ite of the family of Zuhra, originally called ʿAbd ʿAmr (or ʿAbd al-Kaʿba). He was early converted to Islām, took part in both the Hid̲j̲ras to Abyssinia and to Medina, and was present at the battle of Bedr as well as at the other battles. He was the leader of the troops which Muḥammed sent against Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal, and after the conquest of this oasis he married the daughter of the defeated prince. He belonged to the ten, to whom Muḥammed, according to Mussulman tradition, h…

Abū Baihas

(172 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
al-Haiṣam b. Ḏj̲ābir, a Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite of the Banū Saʿd b. Ḍubaiʿa. In order to escape from the persecutions of the well-known al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, he fled to Medina, but was taken prisoner by the governor, ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Ḥaiyān, and executed in a most cruel manner (94= 713). He appears to have held a prominent position as a teacher, for a section of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites is named Baihasīya after him, this section taking up an intermediate position between the harsh Azraḳites and the more gentle Ṣofrites…

Abān

(247 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd ( Fihr.: Ḥumaid) al-Lāḥiḳī (i. e. son of Lāḥiḳ b. ʿUfair), also known as al-Raḳās̲h̲ī, because his family was under the patronage of the Banū Raḳās̲h̲, Arab poet, died in the year 200 (815-816). He was a friend of the Barmakides, for whom he put into verse the Kalīla wa-Dimna [q. v.]. He applied ¶ himself also to the same kind of work with other writings, particularly Persian and Hindoo: e. g. Sīrat Ards̲h̲īr, Sīrat Anūs̲h̲irwān, Kitāb Bilawhar wa-Būdāsif, Kitāb Sindbād, and Kitāb Mazdak. Besides this he wrote a cosmogonical poem entitled Ḏh̲āt al-Ḥulal, a work on the wisdom ( ḥi…

ʿAbd Allāh

(83 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. Ḏj̲aḥs̲h̲, one of the first followers and nephew of the Prophet. ʿAbd Allāh belonged to those that had emigrated to Abyssinia and later came back to Medina. He was the leader of the ill-renowned raid on Nak̲h̲la during the sacred month, of which Ḳorʾān, ii. 214, treats. He took part in the battles of Bedr and Uḥud and met his death in the latter. (M. Th. Houtsma) Bibliography Ibn Saʿd, iiia. 62 et seq. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Usd al-G̲h̲āba, iii. 131.

Muḥammad b. Maliks̲h̲āh

(1,108 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dunyā wa ’l-Dīn Ḳasīm Amīr al-Muʾminīna, a Sald̲j̲ūḳ sulṭān (498—511 = 1105—1118), was born on the 18th S̲h̲aʿbān 474 (Jan. 20, 1082) of a slave, who was also the mother of Sanjjjar, and was given the Turkish name of Tapar. After his father’s death, he stayed at first with Turkan Ḵh̲aṭun but then joined his brother Barkiyāruḳ who granted him the town of Gand̲j̲a. Arrived there, he also seized Arrān and allowed himself to be seduced by Muʾaiyad al-Mulk b. Niẓām al-Mulk into dropping his brother’s name out of the k̲h̲uṭba. The two brothers fought one another…

ʿAbd al-Laṭīf

(296 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
(Muwaffaḳ al-Dīn Abū Muḥammed) b. Yūsuf b. Muḥammed b. ʿAlī al-Bag̲h̲dādī, also called Ibn al-Labbād, one of the versatile Arab scholars and prolific writers, born at Bagdad in 557 (1162), died there in 629 (1231). In Bagdad he studied grammar, Fiḳh, tradition, etc., and was induced by a Mag̲h̲ribine, who had come to the city of the caliphs to devote himself to philosophy, natural and secret sciences, which his great application enabled him to master. In 585 (1189) he went to al-Mawṣil (Mosul) and thence to S…

Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar

(140 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
Ustād̲h̲ Hormuz, i.e. „Lord of Homūz" [q. v.], was the representative ( Nāʾib) of the Būyide S̲h̲araf al-Dawla in ʿOmān, but later on recognized the supremacy of Ṣamṣām al-Dawla. The former therefore sent troops against him and took him prisoner in 374 (984). After the death of S̲h̲araf al-Dawla in 379 (989) he was placed over the province of Kermān by Ṣamṣām al-Dawla. After the latter had been killed in 388 (998), Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar retained the command over the Dailamitic troops there. Afterwards he entered the…
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