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Abū Dulāma

(394 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Zand b. al-Ḏj̲awn , a black slave, client of the Banū Asad in Kūfa. He is already mentioned in the history of the last Umapyad caliph, but appears as a “poet” only under the ʿAbbāsids and plays the part of a court jester in the palace of al-Saffāḥ and especially in those of al-Manṣūr and al-Mahdī. His poem on the death of Abū Muslim (137/754-5) is said to have been the first of his works to make him a name. Examples of his poetry show him to have been a clever, witty versifica…

ʿAbbāsa

(588 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, daughter of the caliph al-Mahdī, sister of the caliphs Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and al-Hādī; it is to her that the locality Suwayḳat al-ʿAbbāsa owes its name. She had three husbands in succession, who all predeceased her; this inspired Abū Nuwās to write some satirical verses, in which he recommanded the caliph, should he want to have a traitor killed, to marry him to ʿAbbāsa. Her name is connected with the fall of the Barmakids through the amorous intrigue with Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Yaḥyā al-Barmakī, with whi…

Abū Ḍamḍam

(181 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the hero of a collection of anecdotes, cited already in the 10th century. All kinds of foolish remarks are attributed to him, and more particularly comical decisions on questions of law, similar to those later attributed to Ḳarākūs̲h̲. This Abū Ḍamḍam is probably identical with the devotee who, before or during the lifetime of Muḥammad, offered up his good name in place of the poortax to the servants of God; for this express sacrifice of the respect of his fellowmen may easily be interpreted a…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Salām

(566 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a Jew of Medīna, belonging to the Banū Ḳaynuḳāʿ and originally called al-Ḥusayn (on the name Salām, see Ibn Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Dahs̲h̲a, Tuḥfa , ed. Mann, 69). Muḥammad gave him the name of ʿAbd Allāh when he embraced Islam. This conversion is said to have taken place immediately after Muḥammad’s arrival at Medīna, or, according to others, when Muḥammad was still in Mecca. Another account which makes him accept Islam in the year 8/629-30 is worthy of more credence—though Muslim critics think it badly a…

Abu ’l-Ḳāsim

(238 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the name of a canting parasite, whom Muḥammed b. Aḥmed Abu ’l-Muṭahhar al-Azdī depicts in his Ḥīkāyat Abi’l-Ḳāsim al-Bag̲h̲dādĪ as a Bagdad type. The book was probably written in the first half of the fifteenth century and purports to relate faithfully a day in the life of its her̄o. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim by means of his pious language gets a hearing in a society of people at a banquet, rails at the guests and the host and gives vent to his eloquence in a detailed comparison of the advantages of Bagdad and Iṣpahan. The n…

Wahb b. Munabbih

(1,615 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, a South Arabian story-teller ( ḳāṣṣ ak̲h̲bārī: Ḏh̲ahabī, in Z. D. M. G., xliv. 483) of Persian descent who was born in Ḏh̲imār, two days’ journey from Ṣanʿāʾ in 34 a. h. (no credence need be given to statements that he adopted Islām in 10 a. h.). Wahb is celebrated as an authority on the traditions of the Ahl al-Kitāb and like his brothers Hammām, G̲h̲ailān and Maʿḳil is classed among the tābiʿūn. The earliest sources know nothing of the story that before his conversion to Islām he belonged to the Ahl al-Kitāb (Fihrist, p. 22) or more precisely was a Jew (Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, ed.…

Amīr K̲h̲ān

(188 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, was the first Nawāb of Tonk, of Afg̲h̲ān origin, and was born in Rohilkand in 1182 (1768—1769). In his twentieth year he began an adventurous life as leader of a band of brigands, entered the service of the rulers of Malwa, Bhopal, Indore and Ḏj̲apur and caused great mischief in Central India by his ravages and plundering. Finally driven into a corner by the English, he concluded a treaty with them in 1817, binding himself to disband his troops, in return for which he was confirmed in possessi…

Barlaam and Josaphat

(379 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the story of the conversion of the Indian prince Josaphat by the ascetic Barlaam, which has been recognised by Felix Liebrccht as a Christian version of an episode in the life of the Buddha. The book, which owes its popularity and influence in the first place to the tales in it, is preserved in Greek, Arabic (several versions), Hebrew, Ethiopie, Armenian and Georgian as well as in many European editions. The Greek romance of Barlaam was probably composed in Palestine at the monastery of Saint Sabas in the first half of the viith century. On this Greek original is based a Christian Ara…

Kumait

(917 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
b. Zaid, an Arab poet of the tribe of Asad, born in Kūfa about 60 and died in 126. Of his compositions, the most famous next to the Mud̲h̲ahhaba (see below) are the Hās̲h̲mīyāt so called because they sing the praises of the Banā Hās̲h̲im, the family of the Prophet. But not the whole of the Banū Hās̲h̲im are considered worthy of the honour and praise of the poet; besides Muḥammad we find only ʿAlī and his descendants. Verses i. 79 and ii. 105 sq. in which ʿAbbās and his sons are commemorated were perhaps only added in the ʿAbbāsid period. The Hās̲h̲imīyāt consist of four long and two short ḳaṣīda…

Amritsar

(158 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, capital of the division of the Pand̲j̲āb (Punjab), which bears the same name. Population: 162 429 in 1901, of whom 77 795 were Muḥammedans, and 17 860 Sikhs. It owes its foundation to Rām Dās, the fourth gurū of the Sikhs (1574), whose successor Arjun (Ard̲j̲un) completed the ‘golden temple’ (Darbār Ṣāḥib) of the Sikhs, which stands on an island in the ‘sacred tank’ (Amrita saras), whence the name of the town is probably derived. The successors of Arjun were obliged to leave the town; and the …

Ḏj̲urayd̲j̲

(201 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a saint whose story is said to have been related by the Prophet himself and has therefore found a place in the ḥadīt̲h̲ . The various versions differ in details one from another, but one motif is common to them all, that the saint is accused by a woman, who had had a child by another man, of being its father; but the child itself, on being asked by the saint, declares the real father’s name and thus clears the saint from suspicion. “D̲j̲urayd̲j̲” is the Arabic reproduction of Gregorius, and one version rightly states that he lived in the prophetless period ( fatra [ q.v.]) between Jesus and Muḥamm…

Abu ’l-Ḳāsim

(234 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the name of a canting parasite, whom Muḥammed b. Aḥmed Abu ’l-Muṭahhar al-Azdī depicts in his Ḥīkāyat Abi ’l-Ḳāsim al-Bag̲h̲dādī as a Bag̲h̲dād type. The book was probably written in the first half of the fifth century and purports to relate faithfully a day in the life of its hero. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim by means of his pious eloquence gets a hearing in a society of people at a banquet, rails at the guests and the host and shows his linguistic skill in a detailed comparison of the advantages of Bag̲h…

Awrangābād Saiyid

(72 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a small town in the Bulands̲h̲ahr district of the United Provinces, founded in 1704 by Saiyid ʿAbd-al-ʿAzīz, a descendant of Saiyid Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Ḥusain of Buk̲h̲ārā, and still belonging to his descendants. It is called Awrangābād Saiyid (of the Saiyid) to distinguish it from another Awrangābād (A. Chandokh). Number of inhabitants (in 1901) 5916. (J. Horovitz) Bibliography District Gazetteer of the United Provinces, V. Bulands̲h̲ahr (Allāhābād, 1903), p. 191. ¶

al-Zuhrī

(1,332 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Muḥammad b. Muslim b. ʿUbaid Allāh b. ʿAbd Allāh b. S̲h̲ihāb, known as Abū S̲h̲ihāb, a celebrated traditionist, was born probably in 50 (670) or 51 — according to others, 56, 57, 58 — and received his nisba as a member of the Meccan clan of Zuhra. His grandfather had fought at Badr on the side of the Ḳurais̲h̲ against Muḥammad and inflicted a wound on the Prophet at Uḥud; his father had been a partisan of ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubair but the son made his peace with the Umaiyads. When still quite a youth, he had paid his respects to Marwān ¶ (d. 65 = 684) (Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Tahd̲h̲īb, ix. 445), and later went t…

Dilāwar K̲h̲ān

(177 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a name of ʿAmīd S̲h̲āh Dāʾūd (a descendant of S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn G̲h̲ōrī), who was appointed governor of Mālwa by Muḥammad S̲h̲āh IV. of Dihlī (792—795 a. h.). In 801 he received his suzerain Maḥmūd II. of Dihlī, who had fled before Tīmūr, with due honour in Dhār, but in 804 he made himself independent of Dihlī. He thus became the founder of the first independent Muḥammadan dynasty of Mālwa, which became extinct with his grandson in 839. He reigned as king in Dhār from 804—808, but does not seem to have struck coins in his…

Abū Maʿs̲h̲ar

(206 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Nad̲j̲īḥ b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, a slave, probably of Indian origin, who subsequently purchased his freedom and lived in Medina. He is especially famous as the author of a Kitāb al-mag̲h̲āzī, numerous fragments of which have been preserved by Wāḳidī and Ibn Saʿd. Amongst his authorities he mentions Nāfīʿ, the Mawlā of Ibn ʿOmar, Muḥammed b. Kaʿb al-Ḳuraẓī and other scholars of Medina. In the year 160 (776-777) he left Medina and remained till his death (170 = 786-787; Ramaḍān?) in Bagdad, where he enjoyed the favor of several members of the court o…

Abū Ḍamḍam

(195 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the hero of a collection of anecdotes, which is quoted as early as in the tenth century. He is made to say all sorts of foolish maxims, and especially to give ridiculous decisions on legal questions, similarly to Ḳarāḳūs̲h̲ later. This Abū Ḍamḍam is perhaps identical with the pious man, who, in or before Muḥammed’s time, in lieu of paying the poor-rate offered his good name to the servants of God; for this express renunciation of the respect of mankind could easily be understood as a permissio…

Abū Dulāma

(319 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Zand b. al-Ḏj̲awn, a black slave, client of the Banū Asad in Kūfa. He is already mentioned in the history of the last Umaiyad caliph, but appears as a ,,poet" only under the ʿAbbāsides and plays the part of a court jester in the palace of al-Saffāḥ and especially in those of al-Manṣūr and al-Mahdī. His poem on the death of Abū Muslim (137 == 754-755) is said to have been the first of his works which made his name. Examples of his poetry show him to us as a clever, witty versificator, who readily seizes upon low expressions …

Nabī

(555 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(a.), prophet, borrowed from Hebr. nābi or Aram. nebīʾā, is found in the Ḳurʾān from the second Meccan period in the singular and plural nabīyūn; in the Medīna period we find also the broken plural anbiyāʾ. Lists of the nabīyūn are given in Sūra vi. 83 sqq.; iii. 34; iv. 161 sqq.; further information about them is given in several passages of Sūra xix. and in xvii. 57. The list consists exclusively of names from the Old and New Testaments (if we leave out Idrīs in Sūra xix. 57, whose name Muḥammad had however also learned from a Christian source; see above ii., p. 442-450; Horovitz, Koran. Unters., p…

ʿAbbāsa

(610 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, daughter of the caliph al-Mahdī, sister of the caliphs Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and al-Hādī; it is to her that the locality Suwaiḳat al-ʿAbbāsa owes its name. She had three husbands in succession, who all predeceased her; that inspired Abū Nuwās to write some satirical verses, in which he recommended the caliph, should he want to have a traitor killed, to marry him to ʿAbbāsa. Her name is connected with the fall of the Barmakides through the amorous intrigue with Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Yaḥya ’l-Barmakī, with wh…
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