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Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Herbert Kalb" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Herbert Kalb" )' returned 28 results. Modify search

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Buße

(799 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
Buße - Historisch Eingebunden in eine kontroverse theol. Diskussion setzte sich in der alten Kirche des Westens die kan. B. als öff. B. unter bfl. Leitung für schwere Sünden durch. Für andere Sünden wird die tätige B. (Gebete, Almosen, Fasten) angewendet. In Analogie zur Taufe konnte die öff. B. nur einmal im Leben geleistet werden. Die Aufnahme in den Büßerstand erfolgte durch Handauflegung des Bischofs u. …

Digesten

(372 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
Digesten - Historisch Die D. (Digesta) od. Pandekten (Pandectae) sind eine umfangreiche Zusammenstellung von Auszügen aus Juristenschriften der klassischen Zeit der röm. Rechtswissenschaft, deren Erstellung Kaiser Justinian (527-565) im Rahmen seiner umfassenden renovatio-Zielsetzung veranlasst hatte. Am 16.12.533 wurden die D. als zentraler Bestandteil des Corpus Iuris Civilis verkündet u. traten am 30.12.533 in Kraft. Die D. sind in 50 Bücher eingeteilt, diese in mehrere Titel, weiter untergliede…

Apostolische Konstitutionen

(464 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
Apostolische Konstitutionen - Historisch Die (Pseudo-) A. sind die bedeutendste Slg. kirchenrechtlich-liturgischer Vorschriften der Antike nach Nizäa u. verkörpern „in geradezu klassischer Weise das Literaturgenus der Kirchenordnung“ (Synek, 1997). Die Datierung um 380 hat sich durchgesetzt, als Entstehungsregion gilt Syrien, auch ist ein Antiocheia-Bezug erkennbar. Eine Kompilation durch eine Redaktionsgruppe kann nicht völlig ausgeschlossen werden, doch legt die einheitliche Red. eine Einzelautors…

Canon Law

(3,963 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
The requirement that clerics should know the law has been part of the self-conception of the Church since the Early Middle Ages: "Nulli sacerdotum suos licet canones ignorare." This is in keeping with…
Date: 2016-10-18

Judicial Systems

(1,152 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
The many-layered and fragmented nature of the judicial system of the Middle Ages was intimately bound to the current degree of "statehood," and consequently a reflection of the prevailing "constitutional law."The kings of the Fran…
Date: 2016-10-18

Legal Structures

(783 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
In 1956, in his short Geschichte der Gesetzgebung in Deutschland (History of Legislation in Germany), W. Ebel expounded an influential typology of medieval law, proposing that the ruling ( Weisung), statute ( Satzung), and decree ( Rech…
Date: 2016-10-17

German Law

(1,986 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
Tacitus' Germania was enthusiastically received in Germany when it was printed in the second half of the 15th century. The Germans of the Reformation age thought to recognize themselves in the Germanic…
Date: 2016-10-18

Privilege

(1,574 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
The conceptualization of privilege was immensely difficult for the predominantly oral culture prior to the 12th century. A theory of privilege was yet to develop, until a theoretical understanding beg…
Date: 2016-10-17

Inquisition

(1,974 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
By "inquisition" is meant a trial procedure developed at the beginning of the 13th century under that name, and used in both the ecclesiastical and the secular jurisdiction until far into the modern p…
Date: 2016-10-17

Customary Law

(2,112 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
In 1916 and 1919, F. Kern published two articles in the Historische Zeitschrift on the developmental structures and conceptual representation of medieval law, with particular reference to customary law, provoking…
Date: 2016-10-17

Urban Codes

(2,810 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
Along with the "medieval agricultural revolution," the 11th/12th centuries also saw the inception of an "urban revolution." A new urban culture came into being, defined by new economic forms (→municip…
Date: 2016-10-18

Regalia and Regalian Rights

(1,437 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
Legal historians describe regalia as the embodiment of sovereign rights and prerogatives. The main turning point in the development of the concept of regalia came with the differentiation between the …
Date: 2016-10-18

Roman Law

(2,674 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
The Imperium Romanum was effectively divided into a Western and an Eastern Empire in 395. The Codex Theodosianus, consisting of 16 books, was officially proclaimed in Constantinople in 438 at the behest of Theodosius …
Date: 2016-10-18

Court Procedure

(2,702 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
In 1199, Bishop Wolfger of Passau obtained from Pope Innocent III a littera gratiosa that also found its way into the Liber extra (X 1.4.3). According to the pope's letter, there reigned in the diocese of Passau the inequi…
Date: 2016-10-18

Feudal Laws

(1,750 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
Although it took various legal forms, feudalism or Lehnswesen was the predominant element of "state structure" in almost the whole of Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages (→feudalism). It embraced not …
Date: 2016-08-09

Laws, Statutes

(1,783 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
In the period of absolute monarchy, legislation became the exclusive function of the ruler. Jean Bodin (d. 1596) founded his concept of sovereignty on potestas legibus soluta, and sees in the law which can be altered accordin…
Date: 2016-10-17

Penal System

(1,501 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
The central issue as regards the historical development of the "penal system" is the emergence and genesis of a form of "public criminal law." The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft established a special…
Date: 2016-10-18

Law

(2,371 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
From the standpoint of modern legal theory, the concept of a legal order depends on three conditions: it must be understood as a prescriptive system, as a system that has to be consciously created and…
Date: 2016-10-17

Contracts

(1,636 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
Law is "created" by contract. Legally binding rules are established for the participants in agreements between two or more parties. The close affinity to statutes, in the sense of rules drawn up by as…
Date: 2016-08-09

Legal Traditions

(816 words)

Author(s): Herbert Kalb
As late as 1356, in the description of the rights of the count palatinate of the Rhine as arch-steward of the empire and those of the duke of Saxony as high marshal of the empire, the Golden Bull focuses on the two most important tribal …
Date: 2016-08-09
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