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Dyeing

(4,083 words)

Author(s): Hazel Uzzell
No account of dyes in this period can be exhaustive while new evidence is continually forthcoming from archaeological excavations and documentary analysis, and while methods of detecting mordants and dyes are continually being improved. Dyes used during this period were derived from minerals, insects, shell-fish, lichens and fungi. For the earliest period under discussion we have little idea of how the dyes were actually used and whether they were used by professionals, or if the dyeing was being carried out in a more domestic situation. Later, there is evidence for dyeing being carried out as a business. For example, in Winchester excavations, houses IX/X and XII (13…

Kermes

(786 words)

Author(s): John Munro | Gale R. Owen-Crocker | Hazel Uzzell
Kermes is the European term derived from the medieval Arabic kirmiz, meaning a 'worm'; and in this context it is close to the late Roman Latin term vermiculus