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Tithraustes

(141 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter
(Τιθραύστης, “der Beste von Herkunft”). [English version] [1] Chiliarch Artaxerxes' [2] II., um 400 v. Chr. Chiliarch (medisch hazarapati, “Herr über Tausend”) des Artaxerxes [2] II., besiegte 395 v. Chr. in Kolossai Tissaphernes und bot dann dem Sieger von Sardeis, Agesilaos [2], im Namen des Großkönigs die Autonomie der ionischen Städte an, falls die Spartaner Kleinasien räumten und die Ionier wieder Tribut an den Großkönig entrichteten (Xen. hell. 3,4,25 f.; Plut. Agesilaos 10,6-8; Diod. 14,80,7 f.). 389-387 u…

Warpalawas

(154 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter
[English version] (“der an Kenntnissen Überlegene”, hethitisch Warballawa, assyrisch Urballa). Luwischer Herrscher von Tuwana (griech. Tyana), dem ehemals assyr. Tabal (in Kappadokien). Sohn Muwaharanis (İVRIZ 2, [1. 327 f.]). W. war Zeitgenosse Tiglatpilesers [2] III. und Sargons [3] II. von Assyrien (2. H. 8. Jh. v. Chr.). In der Inschrift BOR (Bor-Stele, [1. 291, 294]) bezeichnet er sich als hantawati-, “König” (lykisch xñtawati = βασιλεύς/ basileús ). W. war ein Verehrer des Wettergottes Tarhunzas, dem er aus Dankbarkeit einen Wein…

Zarina

(32 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter
[English version] (Ζαρίνα). Herrscherin der Saken (Sakai), die Krieg gegen die Meder (um 600 v. Chr.) geführt haben soll (Ktesias F 7-8 FGrH 688; Nikolaos F 5 FGrH 90). Högemann, Peter

Tomyris

(183 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter
[English version] (Τόμυρις), “die Heldenhafte (?)”. Königin der Massageten, südöstl. des Aralsees, um 530 v. Chr. Die ausschließlich griech. und lat. Berichte sind verm. legendär, wobei der älteste erh. von Herodotos [1] stammt, der zugleich am glaubwürdigsten ist (Hdt. 1,205-214). Um die Herrschaft über die Massageten zu gewinnen, warb Kyros [2] um T., die aber ablehnte. Kyros entschloß sich zum Feldzug und erhielt am Grenzfluß Araxes [2] eine Botschaft der T.: Entweder möge er drei Tagesmärsche …

Herodotus

(425 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter
[German Version] (῾Ηρόδοτος, c. 484–424 bce), is the greatest historian of antiquity, besides Thucydides (c. 460–post 400 bce). He came from the mixed Greco-Carian city of Halicarnassus (today Bodrum in Turkey) and was a Persian subject. Historical thinking has its roots in Anatolia. It began among the Hittites (Asia Minor) and passed on to Homer, but Herodotus is the true “father of historiography” (Cic. De Legibus I 1.5). His entirely preserved opus, Historiai (Lat. Historiae), is written in Ionic prose, the scholarly language of the 6th and 7th centuries bce. Herodotus wrote a hi…

Sadyattes

(361 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Σαδυάττης/ Sadyáttēs). Luwian name: prefix * sādu- 'efficient', final part - atta either 'father' as in Hittite, then 'stalwart father', or - more likely (- atta is a suffix) - 'a person who possesses stalwartness [1. 450]. The occurrence of the name after 1200 BC is proof of the survival of Luwian culture in West Anatolia until the Achaemenids in c. 550 BC. [German version] [1] Last king of Lydia from the house of the Heraclidae, murdered in c. 680 BC Last king of Lydia from the house of the Heraclidae, murdered by Gyges [1] in c. 680 BC. His epithet Candaules probably alludes to Hermes…

Pixodarus

(80 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πιξώδαρος/ Pixṓdaros). Hecatomnid, brother of Maussolus and the ruling dynast Ada, whom he deposed. According to the trilingual inscription of Xanthus, he was satrap of Caria and, in the Aramaic version, also of Lycia (341-336 BC). From 336 until his death in 335, he ruled jointly with the Persian Orontopates, whom Darius [3] III had sent as satrap. Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) Bibliography S. Ruzicka, Politics of a Persian Dynasty, 1992  P. Briant, Histoire de l'empire Perse, 1996, 727-729.

Otys

(68 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ὄτυς; Ótys). King of the Paphlagonians (Paphlagonia) and vassal of the king of the Persians. It is very likely that he bears an Iranian name (cf. Otanes, Old Persian Utāna-), whose etymology, as is often the case with abbreviated names, cannot be determined. In 395 BC, O. entered into an alliance against the great king together with Agesilaus [2] of Sparta. Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)

Pythius

(131 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πύθιος/ Pýthios). Rich Lydian, son of Atys, probably from an old-Lydian dynastic family. According to Herodotus' version, P. invited Xerxes [1] to be his guest in Celaenae (in Phrygia) and mentioned the sum value of his wealth with the intention of giving it to him. Xerxes refused it, increasing instead P.' wealth to a round sum. When P. asked for his eldest son to be released from military service, Xerxes had the son cut in two and the two halves laid to the left and the right of…

Tomyris

(193 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τόμυρις/ Tómyris), 'the heroic' (?). Queen of the Massagetes, to the southeast of the Aral Sea, c. 530 BC. The exclusively Greek and Latin accounts are presumably legendary, with the earliest surviving being from Herodotus [1], also the most believable (Hdt. 1,205-214). In order to gain power over the Massagetae Cyrus [2] wooed T. but she spurned him. Cyrus decided on a military campaign and at the river Araxes [2] at the border received a message from T.: he may either continue three days' marc…

Madates

(125 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μαδάτης, Μαδέτης; Madátēs, Madétēs). Sheik of the Uxians ( Uxii) who roamed the mountain range between Susiane and Persis and controlled the road to Persepolis that leads over a pass. They were not subjects of the Persians, and supposedly even used to collect a road toll from them. Nevertheless, M. held a kind of office (in Curtius: praefectus) in the name of the Achaemenid imperial government. When M. refused in 330 BC to allow Alexander [4] to march through, he was defeated by him but allowed to continue in his official post. M. had …

Gyges

(420 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Γύγης; Gýgēs). [German version] [1] Lyd. king, 7th cent BC Lydian king ( c. 680-644 BC) and founder of the Mermnade Dynasty, is said, according to Herodotus (1,12), to have married the wife of his predecessor  Candaules, murdered by him, and (in this way) to have won rule in Sardis. It is uncertain from where the Lydian-speaking Mermnades came (from Maionia/Mysia?). In any case they were probably not in Sardis until the 1st millennium. Their relationship with the Luvian-speaking ([1. 384,10]  Luvian,  Lydia…

Maussolus

(369 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μαύσσωλος; Maússōlos, in inscriptions also Μαύσσωλλος; Maússōllos). Satrap of Caria (377-353 BC), son of Hecatomnus. The name M. is Carian, the word formation points to Indo-European and Ancient Anatolian origins, although the etymology is not clear. M. is to be considered a preserver and supporter of ancient Anatolian and Carian culture, esp. in the area of religion (cf. [1. 57-64; 591-644); there is little evidence for affinity with Greek cults. Nevertheless he opened himself to Gree…

Hecatomnos

(123 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἑκατόμνως; Hekatómnōs). Carian dynast from Mylasa (Syll.3 167; 168). Son of Hyssaldomos. Appointed satrap of the newly founded satrapy of Caria by Artaxerxes II in 392/1 BC (Diod. 14,98,3). H. was supposed to lead the war against the renegade  Evagoras [1] I of Salamis on Cyprus together with the satrap Autophradates of Lydia (115 Theopompus FGrH F 103). The war at sea started unsuccessfully in 391 because H. secretly supported Evagoras with money (Diod. Sic. 14,98,3 with 15,2,3). H. p…

Zarina

(33 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ζαρίνα; Zarína). Queen of the Sacae, supposed to have waged war with the Medes ( c. 600 BC) (Ctesias F 7-8 FGrH 688; Nicolaus F 5 FGrH 90). Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)

Jariri

(128 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] Prince regent of Karchemish, at the beginning of the 8th cent. BC, tutor of Kamani, the son of Astiruwa. Pictorial representation of J. with Kamani: CARCAMIS bk. 7. In his inscription in Luwian hieroglyphs (CARCAMIS A 6,2-3) ( Hieroglyphic scripts (Asia Minor)), he boasts of being well known in foreign countries: in Egypt, Urartu, among the Lydians, Phrygians and Phoenicians, countries in which J. probably travelled. For in his second inscription (CARCAMIS A 15b, 4), in which he maintains that he can write four scripts ( SCRIBA-lalija): hieroglyphic Luvian, Phoeni…

Labynetus

(114 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Λαβύνητος; Labýnētos; Hellenized form of Akkadian Nabû-na'id/Nabonid). The Hellenized form of the name occurs only in Herodotus [1]. By L., he is probably referring to the kings of the Neo-Babylonian Dynasty (625-539 BC)in general. Two Neo-Babylonian kings play a part in Herodotus: Nebuchadnezzar [2] II (604-562), together with a Cilician ruler ( Syennesis), he negotiated the truce of 585 BC between the Lydians and the Medes (Hdt. 1,74). Nabonid (555-539), was a confederate of Croes…

Evagoras

(527 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Εὐαγόρας; Euagóras). [German version] [1] E. I. City king of Salamis on Cyprus since approximately 411 BC ( c. 435-374/3 BC), from c. 411 Greek king of Salamis in Cyprus. Apart from Greeks, Salamis was from the 9th/8th cents. also inhabited by Phoenicians. Other cities were even ruled by Phoenician kings, such as Citium, Amathus and Soli. However, there were no ethnic tensions. The cultural differences themselves began to blur in the early 4th cent. BC. Both Greek and Phoenician kings were equally receptive to the …

Alyattes

(117 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀλυάττης; Alyáttēs). Lydian king ( c. 600-561 BC), son of  Sadyattes, father of  Croesus. New founder of the empire, which he led to great power (list of peoples: Hdt. 1,28): he conquered  Smyrna (Hdt. 1,16) and undertook yearly campaigns against  Miletus (Hdt. 1,18). These aimed for the collection of tribute. Miletus received a special position as a foreign trade port (cf. Hdt. 1,141). In the east A. extended the kingdom to the upper  Halys (Mazaka). There it came to battles with the…

Ctesias

(572 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Κτησίας, Ktēsías) of Cnidus [German version] A. Life Historian in terms of literary genre, but in modern terms a novelist. C. came from an old family of doctors and lived as personal physician at the court of Artaxerxes [2]II for several years (405-398/7 BC). On his behalf he made contact with  Evagoras [1], the Athenian  Conon [1], as well as with Sparta. Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) [German version] B. Works C. composed a Períodos (a geographical treatise) and an Indiká with a range of factual reports. C. became famous, however, for his large, 23-volume Persiká written in lonic dialec…
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