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(648 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a port on the African coast o the Gulf of ʿAden. It lies on a narrow tongue of land, which is cut off from the mainland at high water and is the only harbour of importance in British Somaliland. Formerly an important trading centre and one of the largest ports of export for the slave trade with Arabia, the town now only possesses modest remnants of buildings of the middle of the xivth century like the tomb of S̲h̲ēk̲h̲ Ibrāhīm, and also the fort erected to the west of it by the Indian government, the palace of S̲h̲armakai ʿAlī of which only the groundfloor and the …


(2,194 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, Addendum. The above article had already been completely set up when, while I was in Cairo, Prof. G. Wiet most kindly gave me access to his rich collection of ṭirāz inscriptions, which contains a wealth of new material, some of which is in the possession of dealers or private collectors and some in various museums. Pride of place must be given to the Arab Museum in Cairo which has in the course of the past few years added to its valuable collection of textiles a whole series of fine pieces with ṭirāz inscriptions; next in i…


(1,404 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, capital of the kingdom of Nad̲j̲d, in the oasis of the same name which lies on the left bank of the Wādī Ḥanīfa stretching towards the north, forming a shallow valley which forms part of the S̲h̲amsīya basin. The lozengeshaped oasis is three miles long and barely one broad. The town is surrounded on all sides except the northeast by dense palm-groves. In the north-east, a few scattered groves interrupt the view to the highlands of Abū Mak̲h̲rūḳ, from which the main source of water for the oasi…


(179 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the capital of the ḳaḍā of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʾizz in the Yemen. Besides the pronunciation with i peculiar to the Yemen we also find Abb (in Niebuhr: Aebb). At an earlier period the walled town with a population estimated at 4,000 belonged to the territory of Ḏh̲ū Ḏj̲ibla. It stands on a hill on the pilgrims’ road which runs from Ḥaḍramawt to the Yemen Tihāma or from ʿAden to Ṣanʿāʾ, in a fertile region where cereals and fruit are grown, also coffee, ḳāt, indigo and wars. In the vicinity there was at one time a silver mine (photographs in the Islām-Stiftung in Leiden). (A. Grohmann) Bi…


(3,049 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, al-Muḳawḳis, the individual who in Arab tradition plays the leading part on the side of the Copts and Greeks at the conquest of Egypt. The Prophet is said to have sent a letter to him in the year 6 a. h. In the address on this letter, the text of which is given in Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam (ed. Torrey, p. 46), al-Maḳrīzī ( Ḵh̲iṭaṭ, i. 29), al-Suyūṭī ( Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍara, i. 58) and al-Manūfī (p. 29), as well as in an entirely different version in Pseudo-Wāḳidī (p. 10), and also in the accounts of the incident in the Arab historians, the position of Muḳawḳis is described in the following phrases: 1. Ṣāḥib al-Iskan…


(111 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a district and village in the Yaman, a day’s journey south of Ṣanʿāʾ The Arab geographers mention a cornelian mine here. The name is also given to a mountain in the Yaman Sarāt. According to Sprenger, we cannot connect the Ḥimyar tribe of this name with the Μoχρῖται of Ptolemy. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Hamdānī, Ṣifal Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab, ed. D. H. Müller (Leyden 1884-1891), p. 68, 104 sq. al-Muḳaddasī, B. G. A., iii. 91 al-Hamad̲h̲ānī, B. G. A., v. 36 Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, vi. 141 al-Yaʿḳūbī, B. G. A., vii. 319 Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. F. Wüstenfeld, iii. 130 iv. 437, 603 A. Sprenger, Die alte …


(530 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town in South Arabia, the capital of the district of the same name in Yemen. It lies on the pilgrim road from Mekka to Ṣanʿāʾ, 60 parasangs (180 miles) or five days’ journey from the latter town. In the days of paganism the town is said to have been called Ḏj̲umāʿ and to have been built on the site later occupied by Ḥiṣn Talammuṣ built by the Imām al-Mutawakkil ʿala ’llāh Aḥmad b. Sulaimān b. al-Muṭahhir. According to al-Hamdānī, the name Ṣaʿda owes its origin to the following circumstance: …


(199 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town on the Gulf of ʿOmān, two miles west of Masḳaṭ on the east coast of Arabia. The town, which has about 14,000 inhabitants, is the starting-point for caravan traffic into the interior of Arabia and, next to Masḳaṭ, the most important commercial centre in ʿOmān. The town is beautifully situated in fertile surroundings, has a good harbour, easily entered but little sheltered, from which Masḳaṭ can be reached in an hour by boat. The sulṭāns of ʿOmān used to have wharves for shipbuilding here…


(2,887 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, an important town in South Arabia, formerly the capital of the Turkish sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʿizzīya, which according to the provincial law regarding the general administration of wilāyets Taḳwīm-i Weḳāʾiʿ (March 15, 1913) included the ḳaḍās of ʿUdain, Ibb, Muk̲h̲ā. Ḳamāʿira, Ḳaʿṭaba, Ḥud̲j̲arīya, and, according to R. Manzoni, also Mak̲h̲ādir, Ḏh̲ī Sufāl, Māwiya, i. e. the whole country between al-Ḥudaida and the independent lands northeast of ʿAden. The town, which lies in 44° 6’ 45” East. Long (Greenw.) and 13° 36’ 55” North L…


(630 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the nameof a dynasty in South Arabia, which rules over three sultanates, those of Bīr ʿAlī ʿAmaḳīn, Bāl Ḥāf ʿIzzān and Ḥabbān. H. v. Maltzan (p. 222) after investigation divided the whole territory belonging to this ruling house into two groups: Lower Wāḥidī on the coast from 48° to 48° 30′ East Long. (Greenwich) in the 14° N. Lat. reaching barely two hours journey into the interior, and Upper Wāḥidī from 47° to 47° 40′ East Long. (Greenwich) and from 14° 20′ to 14° 58′ N. Lat. C. v. Landberg …

Salama b. Rad̲j̲āʾ

(50 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, governor of Egypt from Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 161 (August 30 to September 27, 778) until Muḥarram 162 (October 778). ¶ (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Ṭabarī, ed. de Goeje, iii. 492, 493 Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Kāmil, vi. 38, 39 Corpus Papyrorum Raineri, iii. Series Arabica, ed. A. Grohmann, 1/ii. 119, 120.


(822 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
a small seaport on the Arabian coast of the Red Sea in 13° 19′50″ N. Lat. and 43° 12′ 10″ East Long. (Greenwich). The once imposing town lies on a small bay between two promontories with forts on each about one and a half miles apart. The wall which surrounds the town in a semicircle is pierced by four gates. In the north the Bāb al-Ḥamūdīya leads to the citadel of the town and to a tongue of land which runs out into the sea; in the east roughly in the centre of the wall is the Bāb al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī through which the fo…


(2,100 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the narrow strip of low land along the coast which runs from the Sinai Peninsula along the west and south side of Arabia. Al-Idrīsī gives us the fullest account of Tihāma. According to him, it is traversed by a chain of hills which begin at the Gulf of Ḳulzum ¶ and send out a ridge to the east. The frontier of Tihāma is in the west the Gulf of Ḳulzum and in the east a range of hills running north and south (the Sarāt). The province called Tihāma stretches, according to Idrīsī, from Sard̲j̲a to ʿAden, 12 days’ journey along the sea-coast and 4…


(210 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town in South Arabia, formerly the headquarters of the Ḳāʾimmaḳām of the Ḳaḍā of Kawkabān, to which the town already belonged in Niebuhr’s time. It lies on a tongueshaped spur of the Ḏj̲ebel Ḍulāʿ on the left bank of the Wādī Lāʿa which forms a continuous chain of four rocky hills, the second (from the east) of which is called al-Ḥuṣn. In the SSW. of the town a little lower but not 500 yards away stands the Masd̲j̲id al-Ẓāhir, a mosque now in ruins with a fine cistern, from which a well-made paved road ( marḥal) leads eastwards towards the town. Barely 200 yards east of this ruin or rat…


(9,208 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
The word is borrowed from the Persian and originally means “embroidery”; it then comes to mean a robe adorned with elaborate embroidery, especially one ornamented with embroidered bands with writing upon them, worn by a ruler or person of high rank; finally it means the workshop in which such materials or robes are made. A secondary development from the meaning “embroidered strip of writing” is that of “strip of writing”, border or braid in general, applied not only to inscriptions woven, embro…


(168 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town in South Arabia in the Wādī Baiḥān. The town comprises 12 strong castle-like buildings and 400 houses — the Jewish quarter 50 houses — and is surrounded by palmgroves. It has four main streets with shops in which a busy trade is carried on. The goods come mainly from ʿAden and are brought via Bāl-Ḥāf. Cotton, which is much grown here, is used for the manufacture of excellent cloths which are much sought after in South Arabia. Indigo is also much cultivated and a number of dyeworks produ…


(324 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, 1. Yaʿrub b. Ḳaḥṭān b. Hūd, the grandson of the prophet Hūd, who is also regarded as the ancestor of the Ḥimyar kings, is one of the mythical rulers of the Yaman. He is said to have conquered the ʿĀdites who occupied Maʾrib and thus to have become the founder of the Sabaean kingdom. His name is derived by the genealogists from aʿraba “to speak correct Arabic (i. e. with the iʿrāb)” as he is also said to have been the first to speak Arabic, for his father Ḳaḥṭān still spoke the original language of Sām b. Nūḥ. 2. Yaʿrub b. Mālik, the ancestor of the Yaʿrubid dynasty of ʿUmān whose capitals w…


(638 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, an island at the entrance to the Red Sea in 12° 40′ 30″ N. Lat., 41° 3′ E. Long, called Māyūn by the Arabs, an English possession. The island, which belongs to ʿAden, is 96 miles west of ʿAden and two miles from the Arabian coast. The narrow strait which separates it from the mainland of Arabia is called Bāb el-Manhalī. Perīm therefore commands the exit from the Red Sea, but is in turn commanded by the Ḏj̲ebel Manhalī at the port of S̲h̲ēk̲h̲ Saʿīd, if this — as was done by the Turks in the Wo…


(362 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the name of two towns in North Africa. 1. Zawīlat al-Mahdīya (according to al-Bakrī: Zuwaila) built by the Fāṭimid ʿUbaid Allāh al-Mahdī (d. Rabīʿ I 14, 322) situated a bowshot distant from al-Mahdīya, of which it was a suburb. According to Idrīsī the two towns formed one. It had fine bazaars and buildings and many merchants resided there who went to their businesses in Mahdīya in the day. The town was surrounded by a wall even on the side facing the sea; the land side was further protected by a great …


(1,776 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a nominally independent state on the Persian Gulf under the protectorate of England. Its extent has varied considerably in the course of its history. While Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, for example, who gives ʿOmān an extent of 300 parasangs, includes the district of Mahra in it, Idrīsī describes the latter as an independent country. In the northwest ʿOmān was bounded by the province of al-Baḥrain or al-Had̲j̲ar, in the south by Yaman and Ḥaḍramōt. The sultanate reached its greatest extent under Sulṭān Ibn Māli…
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