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(866 words)

Author(s): Grant, Robert M.
Montanism arose around a.d. 172 in Phrygia, Asia Minor. It was founded by Montanus, a recent convert to Christianity, who in trances uttered oracles predicting the imminent descent of the heavenly Jerusalem at the village of Pepuza in Phrygia (Ecstasy; Eschatology; Prophet, Prophecy). He urged devotees to assemble there, to practice rigorous fasting, and to give money to a common fund. 1. Oracles The oracles of Montanus claim the authority of revelation (e.g., “It is I, the Lord God Almighty, who am present in a man” or “Behold, man is like a lyre, and I hover ove…

Church Fathers

(2,202 words)

Author(s): Grant, Robert M.
1. Definition In Christian thought since the eighth century, a church father (pater ecclesiae) is a teacher living within the first seven centuries (eight among the Greeks) whose teaching the church has recognized as orthodox (Early Church). The four basic requirements have been orthodox doctrine, sanctity of life, agreement with the church, and antiquity. (For someone to be named a doctor of the church, outstanding learning is further required.) As the medieval world (Middle Ages) emerged out of late antiquity, the patristic era came to an end—in the East with John of Damascus (ca. 65…

Cadbury, Henry Joel

(158 words)

Author(s): Grant, Robert M.
[German Version] (Dec 1, 1883, Philadelphia – Oct 7, 1974, Bryn Mawr), New Testament scholar. Born a Quaker, Cadbury had to leave Haverford College after publicly denouncing wartime hatred, but was secretary of the Society of Biblical Literature (1916–1933), and even its president (1936). He taught at Bryn Mawr (1926–1934) and Harvard (Hollis Professor of Divinity) (1934 –1954). He also served as chairman of the American Friends Service Committee (1928–1934 and 1944–1960) and played an important part in the editing of the Revised Standard Version of the NT. His books, including The M…