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Peripatos

(484 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[German version] (Περίπατος; Perípatos). The name of the school founded by the disciples of Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]) to carry on his teachings and research. Since Aristotle, as a metic (Metoikos), was not allowed to own land in Athens, his lectures and scientific work must have taken place on rented premises. Only after his disciple Demetrius [4] of Phalerum had taken over the government of Athens in 317 BC on behalf of the Macedonian supremacy (Alexander [4]) was Theophrastus able to purchase a…

Praxiphanes

(196 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[German version] (Πραξιφάνης; Praxiphánēs). Peripatetic philosopher of the 4th/3rd cents. BC, son of Dionysophanes, disciple of Theophrastus. P. was born in Mytilene, but later resettled in Rhodes. A decree from Delos, in which he is honoured as an euergétēs ('benefactor') and próxenos ('public guest') (fr. 4 Wehrli), is dated to around 260; hence his birth can hardly have been before 330. A report according to which Epicurus was his disciple (fr. 5 Wehrli) is certainly incorrect. Very little is recorded of P.' doctrines. One doxographic note says that his teachings re…

Apellicon

(140 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[German version] (Ἀπελλικῶν; Apellikôn) from Teos; Athenian mint master probably in 89/8 BC. Later, he joined Athenion the tyrant. A. was famous for his book collection, which among other things contained Aristotelian MSS. The story that he had bought Aristotle's unpublished works from  Neleus' heirs in Scepsis is most certainly fictitious. A.'s edition of Aristotle's works proved to be faulty. After A.'s death and the conquest of Athens by Sulla (86 BC), the latter confiscated A.'s library and bro…

Aristotelianism

(2,349 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[German version] A. Introduction Aristotelianism refers to Aristotle's philosophy in the form in which it was passed on and presented by his students and their successors. Aristotle died in 322 BC in Chalcis, where he had sought refuge from the threat of political unrest in Athens. In his will (in Diog. Laert. 5,11 ff.), Aristotle had made provisions for his family and his private assets, but he did not mention his literary legacy or school. It seems as if he had little hope for the publication of his major writings and …

Staseas

(56 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[German version] of Naples (name recorded only in Latin), the first Peripatetic known to be active in Rome ( c. 91 BC). He combined philosophy and rhetoric and represented the doctrine of his school, that, in addition to virtue, external goods are also necessary for eudaimonia (Happiness). Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) Bibliography Moraux, vol. 1, 1974, 218-221.

Herminus

(119 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[German version] (Ἑρμῖνος; Hermînos). Peripatetic of the 2nd cent. AD, student of  Aspasius [1] whose view on the movement of the stars he quoted, and teacher of  Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. Fragments of his commentaries on Aristotle's Categoriae, Analytica Priora, De interpretatione and Topica, and two comments on De Caelo are extant. His assumption that the eternity of the movements of the stars was caused by a heavenly soul probably goes back to Aristotle (Cael. 2,12).  Aristotle, commentators on;  Aristotelianism Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) Bibliography H. Schmidt, De H. Pe…

Aristotle, commentators on

(487 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
The tradition of Greek commentators of Aristotle goes back to  Andronicus of Rhodes. It lasted into the late Byzantine period almost without interruptions. Within this time frame, we have to distinguish three different periods: [German version] 1. From Andronicus (c. 50 BC) to Alexander of Aphrodisias (c. AD 210) Most commentaries of this time period were produced mainly as teaching materials for Aristotelian schools. We also learn about commentaries that were created for polemical purposes by Stoics such as Athenodorus and Cornutus or by Pla…

Phaenias

(394 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[German version] (Φαινίας; Phainías) of Eresus (on Lesbos), Peripatetic philosopher (Peripatos). The spelling of the name is documented in inscriptions on Lesbos and is to be preferred to the common Greek Phanias (Φανίας; Phanías). P. was a pupil of Aristotle [6] and a friend of Theophrastus. He is generally believed to have lived approx. 375-300 BC; tradition indicates only that he was alive during the 111th Olympiad (= 336/333 BC), at the time of Alexander the Great and thereafter. He corresponded with Theophrastus, and the o…

Herminos

(106 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[English version] (Ἑρμῖνος). Peripatetiker des 2. Jh. n.Chr., Schüler des Aspasios [1], dessen Ansicht über die Himmelsbewegung er zitierte, und Lehrer des Alexandros [26] von Aphrodisias. Erh. sind Frg. seiner Komm. zu Aristoteles' Categoriae, Analytica Priora, De interpretatione und Topica, und zwei Bemerkungen zu De Caelo. Seine Annahme, daß die Ewigkeit der Himmelsbewegung von einer Himmelsseele verursacht sei, geht wohl auf Aristoteles (cael. 2,12) zurück. Aristoteles-Kommentatoren; Aristotelismus Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) Bibliography H. Schmidt, De H. Peripat…

Phainias

(331 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[English version] (Φαινίας) von Eresos (auf Lesbos), Peripatetiker (Peripatos). Die Namensschreibung ist für Lesbos inschr. bezeugt und dem gemeingriech. Phanias (Φανίας) vorzuziehen. Ph. war Schüler des Aristoteles [6] und Freund des Theophrastos. Seine Lebenszeit wird gewöhnlich ca. 375-300 v.Chr. angesetzt; überl. ist nur, daß er in der 111. Ol. (= 336/333 v.Chr.), zur Zeit Alexandros' d.Gr. und danach lebte. Mit Theophrast unterhielt er eine Korrespondenz, deren einzig erh. Fr. (fr. 4) diesen …

Aristotelismus

(2,051 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[English version] A. Einleitung Der A. ist die Philos. des Aristoteles in der Form, welche ihr von seinen Schülern und ihren Nachfolgern gegeben wurde. Aristoteles starb 322 v. Chr. in Chalkis, wohin er vor drohenden polit. Unruhen in Athen geflüchtet war. Sein Testament (bei Diog. Laert. 5,11 ff.) enthält Bestimmungen über seine Familie und sein Privatvermögen, aber kein Wort von seinem lit. Nachlaß oder einer Schule; es scheint, daß er wenig Hoffnung auf die Veröffentlichung seiner Hauptschriften oder die Fortsetzung…

Praxiphanes

(181 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[English version] (Πραξιφάνης). Peripatetiker des 4./3. Jh. v. Chr., Sohn des Dionysophanes, ein Schüler des Theophrastos. P. war in Mytilene geboren, siedelte aber später nach Rhodos um. Ein Dekret aus Delos, in welchem er als euergétēs (“Wohltäter”) und próxenos (“öffentlicher Gastfreund”) geehrt wird (Fr. 4 Wehrli), wird auf ca. 260 datiert; seine Geburt kann daher schwerlich in die Zeit vor 330 fallen. Ein Bericht, daß Epikuros sein Schüler gewesen sei (Fr. 5 W.), ist sicher falsch. Eine vereinzelte doxographische Notiz, daß seine Lehre der des Theophrastos (und Ar…

Peripatos

(428 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[English version] (Περίπατος). Der Name der Schule, welche die Schüler des Aristoteles [6] gründeten, um dessen Lehre und Forsch. fortzusetzen. Da Aristoteles als Metöke ( métoikoi ) in Athen kein Grundstück besitzen durfte, müssen seine Vorlesungen und wiss. Arbeit in gemieteten Räumen stattgefunden haben. Erst nachdem sein Schüler Demetrios [2] von Phaleron 317 v.Chr. die Regierung Athens im Interesse der maked. Oberherrschaft (Alexandros [4]) übernommen hatte, ermöglichte er Theophrastos, ein Grunds…

Chamaileon

(61 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[English version] aus Herakleia Pontica. Peripatetiker der 2. Hälfte des 4.Jh. v.Chr. Er verfaßte populär-ethische Werke und eine lange Reihe anekdotenhafter Monographien über Dichter, von Homer bis auf Anaxandrides. Seine ethischen Ansichten waren konventionell und sein ganzes Schrifttum von der popularisierenden Tradition seiner Schule bedingt. Aristotelismus Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) Bibliography Wehrli, Schule 21969, 49-88  F. Wehrli, in: GGPh 3, 555-7.

Aristoteles-Kommentatoren

(437 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
Die Tradition der gr. A.-K. ging auf Andronikos aus Rhodos zurück und dauerte fast ununterbrochen bis in die spätbyz. Zeit. Innerhalb dieses Zeitraums sind drei Perioden zu unterscheiden: [English version] 1. Von Andronikos (ca. 50 v. Chr.) bis Alexander von Aphrodisias (ca. 210 n. Chr.) Die meisten Komm. dieser Zeit standen in engem Zusammenhang mit der Lehrtätigkeit der aristotelischen Schulen. Daneben hören wir auch von solchen, die von Stoikern wie Athenodoros und Cornutus oder Platonikern wie Eudoros, Lucius und Nikostratos in polemi…

Apellikon

(142 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
[English version] aus Teos, athenischer Münzmeister wahrscheinlich 89/8 v. Chr. Später schloß er sich dem Tyrannen Athenion an. Berühmt wurde er als Besitzer einer Büchersammlung, welche u. a. aristotelische Mss. enthielt; aber die Gesch., daß er den Nachlaß des Aristoteles den Nachkommen von Neleus in Skepsis abgekauft habe, ist sicher fiktiv. A.' Aristotelesausgabe erwies sich als fehlerhaft. Nach seinem Tod und nach der Eroberung Athens durch Sulla (86 v. Chr.) wurde seine Bibliothek von Sulla …

Chamaeleon

(272 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
(χαμαιλέων; chamailéōn) [German version] [1] Peripatetic, 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC From Heraclea Pontica. Peripatetic of the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC. He wrote works of a popular/ethical nature and a long series of anecdotal monographs on poets from Homer to  Anaxandrides. His ethical views were conventional, and his entire body of work conditioned by the popularizing tradition of his school.  Aristotelianism Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) Bibliography Wehrli, Schule 21969, 49-88 F. Wehrli, in: GGPh 3, 555-7. [German version] [2] A reptile found in India and Egypt A reptile found …

Adrastus

(673 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Ἄδραστος; Ádrastos). [German version] [1] Mythical figure, leader of the campaign of the Seven against Thebes Leader of the campaign of the Seven against Thebes. A. originally possessed connections to Sicyon, where his cult was old (see below). In the canonical history, however, he comes from Argus. According to the most detailed report of his youth (schol. Pind. N. 9,30 partly according to Menachmus of Sicyon, FGrH 131 F 10), he was the son of king Talaus, the son of  Bias and leader of one of the three rulin…

Callinus

(432 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Καλλῖνος; Kallînos). [German version] [1] Elegiac poet Elegiac poet from Ephesus, c. 650 BC. His only long fr. (21 verses, 1 W./G.-P., from Stobaeus) urges young men ( néoi), presumably symposiasts, to defend their city. The enemy were perhaps the Cimmerians -- they are mentioned in a hexameter in 5(a) W./G.-P., which was adduced by Str. 14,1,40 (cf. 13,4,8) as evidence for a Cimmerian invasion that led to the capture of Sardes (thus c. 652 BC). This invasion had taken place earlier than that of the Trerians (also in 4 W./G.-P.), which destroyed Magnesia. In theme, …

Cratippus

(339 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Κράτιππος; Krátippos). [German version] [1] Of Athens, contemporary of Thucydides, continued Th.'s work of Athens. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus (De Thucydide 16), he was roughly a contemporary of  Thucydides and also the one who continued his work. The table of contents from his historical work which spanned at least to 394 BC is recorded in Plutarch (mor. 345c-e). Some researchers (e.g. [1; 2; 4; 5; 6]) claim that C. was a significant historian of the 4th cent. BC and the author of the   Hellēnikà Oxyrhýnchia , others (e.g. Ed. Schwarz, Ed. Meyer…
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