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At̲h̲ar

(74 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.; properly signifies “trace”), i. Tradition [see ḥadīt̲h̲]; 2. Reli c; al-athar al-s̲h̲arīf (Plur. al-Āt̲h̲ār al-s̲h̲arīfa), relics alleged to have belonged to the Prophet, such as hair, teeth, pieces of raiment, autographs, utensils, especially impressions of his foot-prints which are preserved in mosques and other public places for the edification of Muslims [see ḳadam]. The relic is also called both by Christians and Muslims Ḏh̲ak̲h̲īra (treasure). (Goldziher) Bibliography Goldziher, Muh. Studien, ii. 356—368.

Ahl al-Kitāb

(970 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.) = „the people of the Book“. Muḥammed calls so the Jews and Christians, in distinction from the heathens, on account of their possessing divine books of revelation ( Tawrāt = Torah; Zabūr = Psalter; Ind̲j̲il = Gospel), which, it is true, they transmit in a falsified form, but the recognition of which secures for them a privileged position for the heterodox. In contradistinction to the heathens Muḥammed granted them (Korʾān, ix. 29) after their submission free public worship against payment of a poll-tax ( d̲j̲izya, q. v.) The punctual observance of the special conditions lai…

Āla

(182 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.; plur. ālāt) = instrument. In the classification of the sciences ālāt is the name of such attainments as are acquired not for their own sake (as an end in itself), but “as a means to something else”, e. g. philological discipline and logic, which are a help in the study of religion: al-funūn al-ālīya along with al-ʿulūm al-s̲h̲arʿīya. Cp. the expression ālāt al-munādama = knowledge and capacities which are useful in social intercourse. Consequently that what is called āla differs only in so far from what is called adab [q. v.], as the former takes into account the attainments in…

Badāʾ

(1,685 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.), appearance; in the dogmatic sense: the intervention of new circumstances which bring about the alteration of an earlier divine determination. (Dozy gives the term too wide a signification Essai sur l’Histoire de l’Islamisme, 223, translating it “mutabilité de Dieu”). Three sorts of Badāʾ are distinguished (S̲h̲āhrastānī, ed. Cureton, p. 110) according as the word refers to the knowledge, the will, or the command of God ( B. fi ’l-ʿilm, fi ’l-irāda, fi ’l-amr). The possibility of Badāʾ is, in opposition to the very divergent orthodox Sunni doctrine, always dealt…

Abū Huraira

(618 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
, a member of the Sulaim b. Fahm clan of the South-Arabian tribe of Azd, a companion of the Prophet and a zealous propagator of his words and deeds. He is generally known by his Kunya Abū Huraira; the most divergent statements concerning his real name in heathendom and in Islām have been handed down. In the most trustworthy accounts his name wavers between ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ṣak̲h̲r (see Nawawī, ed. Wüstenf., p. 770) and ʿUmair b. ʿĀmir (Ibn Duraid, Kitāb al-is̲h̲tiḳāḳ, p. 295); the surname of „the father of the little cat“ is supposed to have been given him on account of his…

Aṣfar

(327 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.), yellow: also, in distinction from black, simply light-coloured. Some Arab philologists and exegetes indeed claim for aṣfar also the meaning “black”; see the discussions thereon in the Ḵh̲izānat al-Adab, ii. 465. The Arabs called the Greeks Banul-Aṣfar (fern. Banāt al-A.: Usd al-G̲h̲āba, i. 274, 6 ab infra) according to Ṭabarī (ed. de Goeje, i. 357, 11; 354. 15) signifying “Sons of the Red One” (Esau). In the Ḥadīt̲h̲ mention is made of the contest of the Arabs with the Banū ’l-Aṣfar and of the conquest of their capital Constantinople ( Musnad Aḥmad, ii. 174). Mulūk Banil-Aṣfar (Ag̲…

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(314 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḏj̲īlī, celebrated Mussulman mystic from Ḏj̲īl in the district of Bagdad, born about 767 (1365-1366); the date of his death is uncertain (811 = 1406— 820 = 1417). No exact data concerning his life have been handed down to us; in his works he mentions as his s̲h̲aik̲h̲ S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿIsmāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḏj̲abartī, with whom he lived iD Zabīd; at the same time he gives the following dates: 796 (1393-1394), 799 (1396-1397), 805 (1402-1403). ʿAbd al-Karīm followed the mystic ideas of Muḥyi ’l-Dīn b. ʿArabī [see ibn al-ʿarabī], whose works he commented, but whom he now a…

Āl

(304 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.) = family, kindred, relatives, in the widest sense of the word. According to accounts dating from Islamic times the pre-Islamic Ḳurais̲h̲ had called themselves Āl (or Ahl) Allāh (references are given by Margoliouth, Mohammed p. 19), because they were the keepers of the Kaʿba and the sacred treasures. In Islām the word obtained a wider sense in the combination Āl al- Nabī, particularly through the medium of the prayer attributed to Muḥammed: “Oh God, pray for ( ṣalli ʿalā) Muḥammed and his Āl!” Similar to the definition of the idea Ahl al-Bait [q. v.] the S̲h̲īʿites restrict also th…

Ahl al-Bait

(290 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.) = „the people of the house, of the family“. With reference to Ḳorʾān, xxxiii. 33, the S̲h̲īʿites (and in general the Muḥammedans friendly to ʿAlī) attribute to ʿAlī, Fāṭima, their sons and their descendants to whom alone they restrict this appellation, the greatest moral and spiritual merits as well as the greatest influence on the political rule and religious guidance of Islām. These ideas come to the surface in a more or less exaggerated form with regard to the ʿAlīdes according to the views of those spheres [see s̲h̲īʿa]. In a notice by Ibn Saʿd (iva. 59,15) the appellation Ahl al-B…

Aḥmed

(2,027 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
b. Muḥammed b. Ḥanbal, known by the name of Ibn Ḥanbal, celebrated Islāmic theologian, a member of the Arab family of S̲h̲aibān, born at Bagdad in Rabīʿ I 164 (November 780). During his studies in his native town (till 183 = 799) and on very extensive student travels, which brought him over ʿIrāḳ, Syria and Ḥid̲j̲āz to Yemen, he aimed chiefly at adapting himself to the study of ḥadīt̲h̲. [q. v.]. After he had returned home, he took lessons from al-S̲h̲āfīʿī in fiḳh and in his uṣūl(195 — 197 == 810—813). His religious turn of mind was in creed and law unalterably determined by the…

Āḥād

(164 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.), pl. of aḥad [see next art.], meaning units in arithmetic. In the science of tradition it is used as an abridged plur. of k̲h̲abar al-wāḥid, which are, as contrasted with mutawātir [q. v.], ḥadīt̲h̲ communications which come not from a larger number of trustworthy companions ( aṣḥāb), but from a single person. By means of Istifāḍa, i. e. further extension by different isnād ways, the āḥād tradition was raised to the rank of mutawātir. The discussion of the question: to what extent the āḥād contain positive science and may serve as a criterion for the practice, forms one of…

Awtād

(60 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a., sq. Watad), lit. “pegs” the third category in the hierarchy of the Rid̲j̲āl al-G̲h̲aib containing four holy beings; they are also called al-ʿUmud, the pillars [see abdāl]. Each of them is entrusted with the supervision and care of one of the four quarters of the heavens in the centres of which they have their dwelling place. (Goldziher)

Aṣḥāb

(841 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.: sing. Ṣāḥib) or Ṣaḥāba (a single one: Ṣaḥâbī), “Companions”; as term, techn. of Islām it has the special sense of “The Companions of the Prophet”. In earlier times the term was restricted to those who had enjoyed intercourse with the prophet for some time, and had accompanied him on his expeditions. Later the circle of Companions became more and more extended, the condition that this must have been actual intercourse being disregarded, and those orthodox being also included in the Aṣḥāb who h…

Abū Ḥātim

(246 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(Sahl b. Muḥammed) al-Sid̲j̲istānī (or al-Sid̲j̲zī), an Arabian philologist of Baṣra. He was a pupil of al-Aṣmaʿī, Abū Zaid al-Anṣārī and Abū ʿUbaida Maʿmar b. al-Mut̲h̲annā, whose traditions concerning Arabian philology, poetry and antiquities he propagated. He learnt the great grammatical principles of Sībawaih from al-Ak̲h̲fas̲h̲, but was not able to make a name for himself in the finesses of grammar. The subjects in which he excelled are poetry and the knowledge of the old poets and their language; he was also esteemed as a Ḳorʿān scholar. Nevertheless the old lists (see Flügel, Die…

Ahl al-Ahwāʾ

(91 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.; sing, hawā, „predilection, inclination of the soul“; comp. Ḳorʾān vi. 151) is according to the view of the orthodox theologians the appellation of the followers of Islām, whose religious tenets in certain details deviate from the general ordinances of the Sunnite confession (comp. Zeitschr. d. Deutsch.Morgenl. Gesellsch., lii. 159). As examples there are mentioned: Ḏj̲abarīya, Ḳadarīya, Rawāfiḍ, Ḵh̲awārid̲j̲, anthropomorphists, Muʿaṭṭila. From the above definition it may be inferred that in the sense of Mussulman theology it is not prop…

ʿAẓīma

(127 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.). From the dictionary meaning “earnest, inviolable expression of the will, firm decision” various special applications of the word have developed. 1. In Law, ʿAzīma denotes an inviolable command i. e. the divine law in itself without reference to possible serious obstacles to its being followed. Correlative to it is Ruk̲h̲ṣa, exemption given by the lawgiver for certain cases of prevention, or complete dispensation from observance of the law (e. g. the breaking of a law concerning food in cases of necessity where adherence to the law might b…

Asās

(224 words)

Author(s): Goldziher
(a.), foundation. This word has a special denotation in the system of Ismāʿīlīya [q. v.]. According to this there follow upon each appearance of the Nāṭiḳ (Speaker, Prophet) who appears anew at the beginning of the seven Worldperiods as the embodiment of the World-intellect, seven Imāms one after the other who are termed Ṣāmit (silent); after these 7 Ṣāmit there begins again a new cycle of the self-renewing Nāṭiḳ. The first in point of time of each group of seven ¶ of these Ṣāmit is the Asās (or Naḳīb) as the incarnation of the world-Soul; to him there emanate from the Nāṭi…

G̲h̲urābiyya

(476 words)

Author(s): Goldziher, I.
, a branch of the S̲h̲īʿī “exaggerators” ( g̲h̲ulāt [ q.v.]). Its adherents believed that ʿAlī and Muḥammad were so like in physical features as to be confused, as like “as one crow ( g̲h̲urāb ) is to another” (a proverbial expression for great similarity, cf. Zeitschr. f. Assyr ., xvii, 53), so that the Angel Gabriel when commissioned by God to bring the revelation to ʿAlī gave it in mistake to Muḥammad. ʿAlī was, they say, appointed by God to be a Prophet and Muḥammad only became one through a mistake. According to Ibn …

Awtād

(58 words)

Author(s): Goldziher, I.
(Ar., sing, watad ), literally "pegs", the 3rd category of the hierarchy of the Rid̲j̲āl al-G̲h̲ayb , comprising four holy persons, also called al-ʿUmūd , "the pillars" [see abdāl ]. Each of them is charged with the surveillance of one of the four cardinal points, in the centre of which they have their dwelling-place. (I. Goldziher)

Faylasūf

(206 words)

Author(s): Goldziher, I.
, philosopher: he who studies falsafa [ q.v.], thence frequently used as an epithet for deep thinkers. The Arab philologists know the literal meaning of this word as muḥibb al-ḥikma (lover of wisdom). Al-Ḳindī [ q.v.] was known for preference as the faylasūf al-ʿArab (philosopher of the Arabs), presumably because he was a philosopher of genuine Arab origin in contrast to most Muslim philosophers who belonged to non-Arab nations (cf. the correct explanation of this name given to al-Kindī by T. J. de Boer in the Archiv für Gesch . der Philos ., 1899, xiii, 154 ff.). In popular language faylasūf
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