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Allgemeines Landrecht für die Preußischen Staaten von 1794

(664 words)

Author(s): Gerhard Robbers
Allgemeines Landrecht für die Preußischen Staaten von 1794 - Staatlich Das A. von 1794 ist eine der großen Kodifikationen der neueren europäischen Rechtsgeschichte. Es versucht – bei wenigen Ausnahmen – das gesamte Recht Preußens in einem großen Gesetzbuch zusammenzufassen. Dabei konstruiert das A. den Staatsaufbau in aufgeklärt absolutistischer Rationalität, bleibt aber dem Ständewesen Preußens verhaftet. Sprachlich ist es in großen Teilen von herausragender Kraft. Auf älteren Vorarbeiten beruhend ist das A. wesentlich das gemeinsame Werk von C. G. Svare…

Germany (Vol 1, 2008)

(2,974 words)

Author(s): Gerhard Robbers
See also Germany in 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017. 1 Muslim Populations There are about 3.1 to 3.4 million Muslims in Germany, of whom 1.0 to 1.1 million are of German nationality.1 These figures (from 2006) are based on rough estimates, since there is no register. The numbers are calculated primarily on the basis of immigration from Muslim countries such as Turkey (about 2.5 million), Bosnia-Herzegovina (190,000), Iran (130,000), Morocco (124,000), Afghanistan 96,000), Iraq (95,000), Lebanon (70,000), Paki…


(12,414 words)

Author(s): Gerhard Robbers
I. Social Facts Within Germany there are two major churches which are nearly equal in size and importance. The German population amounts to about 81.7 million in total; the Roman Catholic Church has about 25.4 million members, while the Protestant Church has 24.8 million members. The Protestant Church consists of numerous separate territorially based churches ( Landeskirchen), each of these churches being an independent unit. Together they form the Evangelical Church in Germany. There are also a number of smaller Protestant churches that have chosen …

European Union

(5,780 words)

Author(s): Gerhard Robbers
I. Social Facts Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union (EU) accounting for 72% of EU citizens. Catholics are 48% of EU citizens, the largest Christian group in the EU, while Protestants make up 12%, Christian Orthodox 8%, and other Christians 4%. Non-believers/Agnostics account for 16%, Atheists make up 7%, and Muslims 2%. Protestantism, in its form of Lutheranism and Calvinism or in churches that follow a unification of the two, is strong especially in the north of Europe, i.e. in the Scandinavian and Baltic countries, parts of …


(4,088 words)

Author(s): W. Cole Durham, Jr. | Gerhard Robbers | Donlu Thayer
I. Background  In recent years, issues of freedom of religion or belief and state-religion relations have become increasingly important, in many respects critically important, worldwide. The 236 articles of the five-volume Encyclopedia of Law and Religion provide a comprehensive, succinct account of the state-religion legal systems in virtually all countries of the world and also include accounts of major international organizations that deal with religion-related issues, most notably freedom of religion or belief.  There is in fact no absolutely canonical count of a…