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Barbaro, Ermolao

(661 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Hermolaus Barbarus; ital. Humanist und Philologe. Geb. am 21. 5. 1453 in Venedig, gest. am 14. 6. 1493 in Rom. Ab 1462 Studium in Rom und Padua; dort Prom. 1474 in den Artes, 1477 im Zivil- und Kirchenrecht. 1477 Prof. für Philosophie in Padua. Bis 1491 verschiedene Gesandtschaften für die Republik Venedig; 1491 Verbannung aus Venedig. Werdegang und Werk B. entstammte einer Familie von venez. Diplomaten und Gelehrten: Sein Großvater Francesco hatte Plutarch übersetzt, sein Onkel Ermolao d. Ä. Aesopfabeln und eine Vita Sancti Athanasii; B.s Neffe war Daniele Barbaro. B. sel…

Valla, Giorgio

(624 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Ital. Gelehrter, Mathematiker und Mediziner. Geb. 1447 (oder früher) in Piacenza, gest. am 23. oder 24. 2. 1500 in Venedig. 1457–1462 Erziehung am Hof des Fürsten von Vigoleno; ab 1462 Studium des Griechischen in Mailand, ab 1464/65 auch der Mathematik und Medizin in Pavia. 1467–1479 Lehrer für Rhetorik und Griechisch in Mailand, Pavia und Genua, 1480–1484 nur noch in Pavia. 1485–1500 Prof. für Poetik in Venedig an der Scuola Grande di San Marco; 1496 achtmonatige Haft aus polit. Gründen. Werdegang V., nach Angaben seines Sohnes ein entfernter Verwandter des berühmteren L…

Cola di Rienzo

(721 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Auch C. di Rienzi; ital. Humanist und Politiker. Geb. um 1313 in Anagni (Latium) als Nicola di Lorenzo, gest. am 8. 10. 1354 in Rom. Ab etwa 1333 Studium des Rechts in Rom; Tätigkeit als Notar. 1343 Mitglied einer röm. Delegation an Papst Clemens VI.; 1344 Ernennung zum Notar der städtischen Kammer in Rom durch den Papst. 1347 Anführer einer Volkserhebung in Rom, vom Volk zum Tribunen ernannt. Dezember 1347 Kirchenbann und Flucht aus Rom; 1350 in Prag bei Kaiser Karl IV.; 1352 Auslieferung nach Avignon; 1354 im Auftrag von Papst Innozenz VI. Rückkehr nach Rom als Senator. Leben C. stammte a…

Linacre, Thomas

(463 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Lynaker, Thomas; engl. Mediziner und Philologe. Geb. vermutlich 1460 in Canterbury oder Umgebung, gest. am 20. 10. 1524. Erziehung in Canterbury, Studium in Oxford. 1487–1499 Italienreise mit Aufenthalten in Florenz, Rom, Venedig und Padua. 1488–1490 Studium in Florenz bei Angelo Poliziano und Demetrios Chalcondylas; 1496 Erwerb eines Diploms der Medizin in Padua. Um 1499 Rückkehr nach London; Tätigkeit als Prinzenerzieher am engl. Hof und als Arzt. 1518 Gründung des Royal College of Physicians. 1520 Priesterweihe. Werk und Wirkung L.s Leben ist nicht in allen Phasen kl…

Aleander, Hieronymus

(462 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Aleandro, Girolamo/Jerôme; ital. Humanist, Philologe und Kardinal. Geb. am 13. 2. 1480 in Motta di Livenza bei Treviso, gest. am 1. 2. 1542 in Rom. Studium der Medizin, Phil. und Theologie in Padua. Ab 1501 diplomatische Tätigkeit im Dienst der Päpste; 1508 Übernahme einer Prof. für Griech., Lat., Hebr. und Chaldäisch an der Pariser Sorbonne, 1513 dort Rektor; ab 1516 erneut in Paris und Lüttich im Kirchendienst. Ab 1517 Leiter der Bibliotheca Vaticana in Rom; 1521 Mitwirkung am Reichstag zu Worms; 1524 Erzbischof von Brindisi, 1538 Kardinal. Werk und Wirkung Als Sohn eines adeli…

Giphanius, Obertus

(487 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Hubert van Giffen; niederl. Philologe und Jurist. Geb. 1534 in Buren (Geldern), gest. 1604 in Prag. Studium der Phil. in Löwen, der Jurisprudenz in Orléans, Bourges (als Schüler von Jacques Cujas) und Paris. 1571–1582 Prof. für Ethik, Logik und Institutiones in Straßburg; 1583–1590 Prof. für Pandekten und Phil. an der Academia Norica in Altdorf bei Nürnberg; ab 1599 Beisitzer am Reichshofrat in Prag. Leben und Werk G. stammte aus einer Familie von protestantischen Grundbesitzern in der niederl. Provinz Geldern. Noch während seiner Studienzeit publizierte er 15…

Sylburg, Friedrich

(410 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Dt. Gräzist und Editor. Geb. 1536 in Wetter bei Marburg, gest. am 17. 2. 1596 in Heidelberg. Studium der alten Sprachen und Gesch. in Marburg; Aufenthalte in Jena, Genf und Paris. Schulische Lehrtätigkeit in Neuhaus und Lich; 1581 Ablehnung eines Rufs auf eine Griechischprofessur in Marburg; 1583–1591 Editionstätigkeit in Frankfurt am Main, ab 1591 in Heidelberg. Werk und Wirkung S., Sohn eines Bauern, studierte in Marburg Griechisch, Latein und Geschichte. Ein Aufenthalt in Paris stiftete den Kontakt zu dem Humanisten und Buchdrucker Henricus Stephanus, zu dessen Thesaurus Gra…

Poliziano, Angelo

(1,408 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Agnolo Ambrogini, lat. Angelus Politianus; ital. Humanist und Dichter. Geb. am 14. 7. 1454 in Montepulciano, gest. am 29. 9. 1494 in Florenz. Ab 1469 Studium der Humaniora in Florenz; ab 1473 Förderung durch Lorenzo de’ Medici; 1475 Aufnahme in dessen Haushalt als Erzieher und Privatsekretär. 1477 Priesterweihe; in der Folge verschiedene kirchliche Ämter (u. a. 1485 Kanonikus der Kathedrale von Florenz). 1479/80 Aufenthalt in Oberitalien; 1480 Berufung zum Prof. für Latein, Griechisch und Rhetorik in Florenz. Werdegang Il Poliziano (so nach seiner Heimatstadt, lat. Mo…

Giphanius, Obertus

(525 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Hubert van Giffen; Dutch philologist and jurist. Born Buren (Gelderland) 1534, died Prague 1604. Studied philology at Leuven, jurisprudence at Orléans, Bourges (under Jacques Cujas) and Paris. 1571–1582 prof. of ethics, logic and Institutiones at Strasbourg; 1583–1590 prof. of pandectics and philology at the Academia Norica in Altdorf near Nuremberg. From 1599, assessor at the Aulic Council in Prague. Life and works G. came from a family of Protestant landowners in the Dutch province of Gelderland. While still a student in 1566, he published an edition of Lucretius’ De rerum natura t…

Cola di Rienzo

(768 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Also C. di Rienzi; Italian Humanist and politician. Born Nicola di Lorenzo c. 1313 in Anagni (Latium), died 8. 10. 1354 at Rome. Studied law at Rome from c. 1333; worked as a notary. 1343, member of a Roman delegation ¶ to Pope Clement VI. 1344 named notary to the city chamber by the Pope. Led a popular insurrection at Rome in 1347, proclaimed Tribune by the people. December 1347, excommunicated. Fled Rome. 1350 in Prague with Emperor Karl IV; 1352 extradited to Avignon; 1354 returned to Rome as senator at the behest of Pope Innocent VI. Life C. was born in modest circumstances. After his mo…

Pighius, Stephanus Vinandus

(624 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Pighe/Pigge, Steven Wynants/Winand, Latin Piggius; Dutch Humanist and antiquarian. Born 1520 in Kampen, died Xanten 16. 10. 1604. Studied ancient languages at Leuven, doctorate there. 1547–1555 antiquarian studies in Italy. Secretary to Cardinal Marcello Cervini; from 1555 at Brussels, in the service of Cardinal Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle. 1571–1575 travelling companion of the Crown Prince of Kleve (Cleves), visiting Vienna and Rome. Following the death of the Prince (1575) went to Xanten as a canon. Work and influence P. studied classical languages at Leuven, where he…

Vittorino da Feltre

(368 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Vittorino dei Ramboldini; Italian Humanist and pedagogue. Born Feltre 1378, died Mantua 2. 2. 1446. From 1396 studied in Padua, 1415/16 in Venice, 1416 returned to Padua. 1421/22 prof. of rhetoric at Padua. Founded schools 1422 in Padua, 1423 in Venice and Mantua, where he also worked as a prince’s tutor. Career and influence V., the son of a notary, studied grammar and literature at Padua with Gasparino Barzizza and Giovanni da Ravenna, and mathematics with Pelacani da Parma. He learned Greek from Guarino di Verona, whose school foundations influe…

Cusanus, Nicolaus

(1,162 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Nicholas of Kues, Nicolaus Treverensis, Nicolaus de Cusa; German Humanist and cardinal. Born Kues an der Mosel 22. 10. 1401, died Todi (Umbria) 11. 8. 1464. 1416 studied artes at Heidelberg; from 1417/18, studied ecclesiastical law at Padua, 1423 doctorate as Doctor decretorum. Returned to Germany by 1425 (Kues, Cologne). 1431–1436 took part in Council of Basel; travels to libraries; 1437 at Byzantium on behalf of the Pope. Holy orders (not earlier than) 1436. Cardinal December 1448. Prince-Bishop of Brixen from 1450. Return to Rome 1459 an appointment as curial cardinal. Background C.…

Barzizza, Gasparino

(515 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Also Gasparino di Pietrobuono, Gasparinus Barzizius Pergamensis; Italian rhetorician and philologist. Born 1360 in Bergamo or Barzizza, died 1431 at Milan. Studied grammar and rhetoric at Pavia from 1390. Prof. of Rhetoric and Grammar at Univs. of Pavia (1403–1407) and Padua (1407/08–1421), doctorate in artes at Padua 1413. Founded free Latin schools at Padua (1407) and Milan (1418); taught there and, besides univ. activity, also at schools in Ferrara, from 1421 Milan. 1414 named Apostolic Secretary by Antipope John XXIII. Took part in Council of Konstanz 1417. Work and influence B. …

Sylburg, Friedrich

(430 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
German Hellenist and editor. Born Wetter (Marburg) 1536, died Heidelberg 17. 2. 1596. Studied ancient languages and history at Marburg; spent time at Jena, Geneva and Paris. Taught in schools at Neuhaus and Lich. 1581 refused appointment as prof. of Greek at Marburg. Editorial work at Frankfurt 1583–1591, from 1591 at Heidelberg. Work and influence S., the son of a farmer, studied Greek, Latin and history at Marburg. A stay in Paris brought him into contact with the Humanist and printer Henricus Stephanus, for whose Thesaurus Graecae Linguae (1572) S. wrote several entries. He gav…

Linacre, Thomas

(508 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Lynaker, Thomas; English physician and philologist. Probably born 1460, Canterbury or surroundings, died 20. 10. 1524. Schooled at Canterbury, studied at Oxford. 1487–1499 journey to Italy with stays at Florence, Rome, Venice and Padua. 1488–1490 studied at Florence with Angelo Poliziano and Demetrios Chalkokondyles. 1496 awarded a diploma of medicine at Padua. Returned to London c. 1499, where he worked as prince’s tutor at the English court and as a physician. 1518 founded the Royal College of Physicians. 1520 holy orders. Work and influence Not all phases of L.’s life are cl…

Enoch von Ascoli

(415 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Enoch Asculanus; Italian Humanist. Born c. 1400 at Ascoli Piceno, died there c. 1457. Educated at Florence; teaching (poetry and rhetoric) at Perugia c. 1440. Tutor to the sons of Cosimo de’ Medici in Florence. Thereafter working at Rome in the service of Pope Nicholas V. 1451–1455 searching for manuscripts in Northern and Eastern Europe. Returned to Rome in 1455 with the Codex Herfeldensis. Works and influence E. (actually Alberto) of Ascoli in the Italian Marche came from a lowly background. He was initially educated at Ascoli, then at Florence with Francesco…

Poliziano, Angelo

(1,517 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Agnolo Ambrogini, Latin Angelus Politianus; Politian. Italian Humanist and poet. Born Montepulciano 14. 7. 1454, died Florence 29. 9. 1494. Studied Humaniora in Florence from 1469; supported from 1473 by Lorenzo de’ Medici, who took him into his household in 1475 as tutor and private secretary. Holy orders 1477; thereafter various ecclesiastical appointments (e.g. 1485 canon at Florence Cathedral). 1479/80 sojourn in northern Italy; 1480 appointed prof. of Latin, Greek and rhetoric at Florence. Career Il Poliziano (called after the town of his birth, in Latin Mons Politianus) lost…

Pilato, Leonzio

(452 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Leontinus/Leo Pilatus; Italian Humanist and translator. Date of birth unknown; died on a sea voyage to Venice 1366. 1341 in Naples, c. 1350–1358 on Crete. Translating Homer from 1358. 1360–1362 prof. of Greek at Florence. Travelled to Constantinople 1363. Life and works P. grew up in Calabria, where a few pockets of the Greek language had survived, but he described himself as a Greek of Thessaly. His teacher was Barlaam of Calabria. He spent some time at Naples around 1341, where he had contact with Paolo da Perugia, librarian to Robert…

Aleander, Hieronymus

(487 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Aleandro, Girolamo/Jerôme; Italian Humanist, philologist and cardinal. Born 13. 2. 1480 in Motta di Livenza (Treviso), died 1. 2. 1542 in Rome. Studied medicine, philology and theology at Padua. Worked as a diplomat in the service of the Papacy from 1501; assumed professorship in Greek, Latin, Hebrew and Chaldaean at the Sorbonne in Paris in 1508, becoming rector there in 1513. In Paris again from 1516 and Liège in ecclesiastical service. Director of the Biblioteca Vaticana in Rome from 1517; took part in the Diet of Worms in 1521; Archbishop of Brindisi 1524; Cardinal 1538. Work and infl…
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