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Chariton

(957 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
(Χαρίτων; Charítōn). [German version] A. Life We have no direct information about the author of the earliest complete surviving novel, beyond that given by him at the beginning of the book; there he presents himself as secretary to the orator Athenagoras, originating from Aphrodisias in Caria. It has been conjectured that all these details, including the name Chariton, were invented in order to establish a symbolic link to the theme of love and to the setting (on the Syracusan Athenagoras cf. Thuc. 6…

Euhemerus

(789 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[German version] (Εὐήμερος; Euḗmeros) of Messene (it is unknown to which Messene this refers; some testimonials attest to other cities of birth). Of his work, the Ἱερὰ ἀναγραφή ( Sacra historia), the résumé in the ‘Historical Library’ of  Diodorus [18] Siculus (5,41-46 and 6,1) and various testimonies and fragments have been passed down to us. E. pretended to have gone on a number of trips on behalf of King Cassander (305-297 BC). He told particularly of his visit to an archipelago: on the biggest island, Panchaea, he saw a …

Iambulus

(277 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[German version] (Ἰαμβοῦλος; Iamboûlos). In his library of world history (2,55-60),  Diodorus [18] Siculus mentions a merchant I., who, while on a voyage in Arabia, was carried off to a blissful island by Ethiopians, who thereby practised a purification ritual that was more than 20 generations old. The description of the island (which might be Sri Lanka) contains all the characteristics of an ancient utopia: an ideal climate, unusual fertility and a communist social structure. There are paradoxical…

Sesonchosis Romance

(102 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[German version] Conventional title for a Greek prose work, known to us from a number of papyrus fragments (POxy. 1826, end of the 3rd or beginning of the 4th century AD; POxy. 2466 and 3319, 3rd century AD). The main character was Sesonchosis (Sesostris); the legend ascribed to him acts of pharaohs of various dynasties. The narrative exhibits analogies to the Ninus Romance, but the style of the fragments places it close to the New Testament and Apocryphal acts of the Apostles (New Testament Apocrypha). Novel Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) Bibliography S. A. Stephens, J. J. Winkler (ed.)…

Pseudo-Callisthenes

(175 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[German version] A portion of the MS tradition for the work generally known today as the 'Alexander Romance' erroneously names Callisthenes [1], court historian of Alexander [4] the Great, as author. Numerous versions of the 'Alexander Romance' - a 'biography' of Alexander the Great in which historical and fantastic information are mixed - of a variety of dates have been handed down. The dating of the oldest version is uncertain; the only terminus ante quem is the Latin translation by Iulius [IV 23] Valerius ( cos. AD 338). Less disputed is the location of its composition, prob…

Pseudo-Clementine Literature

(419 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[German version] Term for a group of writings traditionally attributed to Clement of Rome (Clemens [1]) (1st cent. AD): the Homilíai ('Homilies'; transmitted in the original Greek version) and the Recognitiones ('Scenes of recognition'; preserved only in the Latin translation by Rufinus [II 6] of Aquileia and in a Syrian translation); both works were probably written in Syria during the 4th cent. AD. Appended to them (in Greek) were Peter's letter to John, the record of John's reply and Clement's letter to John, which is prefixed to the beginning of the Homilíai in the MSS we know today. T…

Epistolary novel

(355 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[German version] The epistolary novel is a literary sub-genre, almost exclusively familiar in numerous modern examples dating from the 18th and 19th cents. (Richardson, Rousseau, Laclos, Goethe etc.), yet was already known in classical antiquity. However, ancient examples of this genre have only been critically studied in terms of their authenticity and sources, but never evaluated in terms of literary aspects. At least this was true prior to the publication of the latest works in this field. The …

Pseudo-Clementinen

(383 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[English version] Bezeichnung einer Gruppe von Schriften, die traditionell Clemens [1] von Rom (1. Jh. n. Chr.) zugeschrieben werden: die Homilíai (‘Predigten; in der original griech. Fassung überl.) und die Recognitiones (‘Wiedererkennungsszenen; lediglich in der lat. Übers. des Rufinus [6] von Aquileia und einer syr. Übers. erh.); beide Werke wurden verm. in Syrien im 4. Jh. n. Chr. verfaßt. Diesen hinzugefügt wurden (griech.) der Brief des Petrus an Johannes, der Bericht über die Antwort des Johannes und der Brief des Clemens an Johannes, der in den uns bekannten Hss. den Homilí…

Iambulos

(263 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[English version] (Ἰαμβοῦλος). In seiner Bibliothek der Weltgesch. (2,55-60) erwähnt Diodoros [18] Siculus einen Händler I., der auf einer Reise in Arabien von Äthiopiern, die damit einen schon mehr als 20 Generationen alten Reinigungsritus vollzogen, auf eine glückselige Insel verschleppt wurde. Die Beschreibung der Insel (hinter der sich vielleicht Ceylon verbirgt) enthält alle Charakteristika der ant. Utopie: ideales Klima, außergewöhnliche Fruchtbarkeit und eine kommunistische Gesellschaftsstr…

Briefroman

(305 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[English version] Die lit. Untergattung des B., die fast ausschließlich durch die zahlreichen modernen Beispiele aus dem 18. und 19.Jh. bekannt ist (Richardson, Rousseau, Laclos, Goethe usw.), existierte in Wirklichkeit schon in der klass. Antike. Die ant. Beispiele sind jedoch nur echtheits- und quellenkritisch untersucht worden und nie unter lit. Gesichtspunkten; das war wenigstens bis zum Erscheinen der jüngsten Arbeiten der Fall. Folgende Texte können zu dieser Gattung gezählt werden: Die Brie…

Longos

(1,030 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[English version] (Λόγγος). Über die Person des Verf. des berühmtesten griech. Romans, ‘Daphnis und Chloe, besitzen wir keine Informationen: Der Name L. in den Hss. ist typisch röm. und auf Lesbos, der Insel, auf der die Handlung des Romans spielt, häufig belegt; röm. Namen waren unter den Griechen der Kaiserzeit jedoch sehr verbreitet. Auch für die Datierung des Werks existieren nur Indizien, die Raum für Vermutungen lassen: Die Raffiniertheit seiner Erzählung läßt an eine reife Phase der Gattung des Romans denken, also wahrscheinlich die Zeit der Wende vom 2. zum 3. Jh.n.Chr. L. kon…

Pseudo-Kallisthenes

(159 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[English version] Ein Teil der hsl. Überlieferung nennt für das Werk, das heute allg. als ‘Alexanderroman bekannt ist, irrtümlich Kallisthenes, den Hofhistoriker Alexandros' [4] d.Gr., als Autor. Vom Alexanderroman - einer “Biographie” Alexanders des Großen, in der sich histor. und phantastische Angaben vermengen - sind zahlreiche Fassungen unterschiedlicher Datier. überl. Die Datier. der ältesten Fassung ist unsicher; der einzige terminus ante quem ist die lat. Übers. des Iulius [IV 23] Valerius ( cos. 338 n. Chr.). Weniger umstritten ist der Ort der Abfassung, v…

Euhemeros

(751 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[English version] (Εὐήμερος) aus Messene (um welches Messene es sich dabei handelt, ist unbekannt; einige Testimonien bezeugen andere Geburtsstädte). Von seinem Werk, der Ἱερὰ ἀναγραφή ( Sacra historia), sind die Zusammenfassung in der Histor. Bibliothek des Diodoros [18] Siculus (5,41-46 und 6,1) und verschiedene Testimonien und Fragmente auf uns gekommen. E. gab vor, eine Reihe von Reisen im Auftrag des Königs Kassandros (305-297 v.Chr.) unternommen zu haben. Im besonderen erzählte er von seinem Besuch eines Archipels: Auf der…

Chariton

(913 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
(Χαρίτων). [English version] A. Leben Über den Autor des frühesten vollständig erh. Romans haben wir keine direkten Angaben, abgesehen von jenen, die er selbst zu Beginn des Werkes macht; dort stellt er sich als aus Aphrodisias in Karien stammender Sekretär des Redners Athenagoras vor. Man hat gemeint, daß all diese Angaben einschließlich des Namens Chariton erfunden worden seien, um eine symbolische Verbindung zum Thema Liebe und zum setting herzustellen (zum syrakusanischen Athenagoras vgl. Thuk. 6,35), doch sind beide Namen gerade in Aphrodisias epigraphisc…

Longus

(1,122 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Author of 'Daphnis and Chloe' (Λόγγος; Lóngos). We have no information about the person who wrote the most famous Greek novel, ‘Daphnis and Chloe’: the name L. in the MSS is typically Roman and frequently attested on Lesbos, the island where the action of the novel takes place, but Roman names were very common among Greeks in the Imperial period. Also as far as the dating of the work is concerned, we only have few indications which leave room for doubt. The refinement of the tale con…

Chione novel

(212 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence)
[German version] (Χιόνη; Chiónē). A Greek novel, usually thus named after the putative female protagonist; three fragments survive, known to us only from Wilcken's summary transcription of a Coptic palimpsest, the so-called Codex Thebanus, which was subsequently lost. The meagre fragments are difficult to interpret, but seem to show Chione as protagonist, courted by many suitors and then forced into marriage against her will; with her lover, she considers how she can end her life. Clear similarities to the  Chariton novel (also contained in the Cod. Thebanus) lead to the supposit…

Calligone (novel)

(158 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence)
[German version] Name given to a Greek novel of which only two fragments are extant; one has yet to be published [3]; in the other (PSI 981, 2nd cent. AD) the female protagonist, C., enters the tent of an Eubiotos; her grief appears to have been caused by news of the fate of an Erasinus. C. thus reaches for her sword but, with prudent foresight, Eubiotos had already taken it away when he stood next to her. The name Eubiotos and the reference to the Sauromatae suggest a link with Lucian's ‘Toxaris [4]. Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) Galli, Lucia (Florence) Bibliography First edition: 1 M. Norsa, PSI…

Parthenope (novel)

(132 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence)
[German version] By convention, the title ‘Parthenope romance’ or ‘Romance of Metiochus and Parthenope’ is given to a Greek prose narrative known from a number of papyrus fragments (PBerol. 21179 + 7927 + 9588, palaeographically dated to the 2nd cent. AD; further evidence may be provided by PBodl. 2175 and POxy. 435). The love story of Metiochus and Parthenope and Parthenope's wanderings (also the inspiration for a pantomimus, see Lucian, De saltatione 2; 54) can be reconstructed with the aid of some later adaptations (the Coptic story of the martyrdom of St. Barta…

Ninus romance

(578 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence)
[German version] The discovery of the first fragments of the so-called ‘ Ninus Romance’ (NR) and their publication in 1893 by U. Wilcken mark a turning-point in the study of ancient narrative literature. The NR was the first of a large number of other Greek novels recovered from Egyptian papyri. Its early dating (not later than the 1st cent. AD) led to the rejection of  E. Rohde's thesis, widely accepted at that time, that the flowering of the Greek novel was connected with the Second Sophistic (2nd cent. AD) [1]. As well as fragments A and B of the PBerolinensis 6926 (ed. Wilcken), …

Achilles Tatius

(1,012 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Ἀχιλλεὺς Τάτιος; Achilleùs Tátios). [German version] [1] Of Alexandria of Alexandria, 2nd cent. AD Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) [German version] A. Life As well as the novel ‘Leucippe and Cleitophon’ (in eight books), he wrote a treatise on the sphere of heaven, a treatise on etymology and a polygraphic work. According to the Suda lexicon (α 4695 Adler) he is said to have converted to Christianity -- a fiction like that circulating about  Heliodorus. It notes that on the whole his style is similar to that of other authors of romantic novels [1. 1710]. Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) …
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