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Contest of Homer and Hesiod

(785 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Αγὼν Ὁμήρου καὶ Ἡσιόδου/ Agṑn Homḗru kaì Hēsiódou, Latin Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi). The ‘Contest of Homer and Hesiod’ (CHH), which is only related in one MS (Cod. Laurentianus Graecus 56,1), is part of the ancient anecdotal-biographical tradition surrounding famous poets and thinkers (cf.  Biography). This work, a compilation of prose and hexameter verse, was written during or shortly after the reign of emperor Hadrian (AD 117-138) (presumably during the  Second Sophistic) since the author…

Fire

(1,707 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(πῦρ; pŷr, Lat. ignis). [German version] A. Production In practical life the Greeks had already been using fire since Homeric times for cooking, smithing, sacrificing, firing ceramics, for cremation, heating, lighting, as a signal, as a weapon, for cleaning and for extracting ore. People rubbed sticks (πυρεῖα/ pyreîa, Theophr. De igne 64 Coutant) against each other or hit appropriate stones in order to ignite a fire, and as a source of fire, they kept a permanently burning oil lamp or a glowing  narthex staff (Hes. Theog. 567). Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) [German version] B. Greek M…

Deikeliktai

(100 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Δεικηλίκται; Deikēlíktai). According to Ath. 14,621d-f a Laconic term for players in the simple street theatre, who acted out farcical scenes such as ‘Fruit-Thief’ or ‘The Foreign Doctor’ (= μίμοι, μιμολόγοι). Despite variable spellings (δικηλισταί, δεικελισταί, δεικηλικταί), the Suda as well as MSS derive the word deikeliktai from δίκηλον, δείκελον ( díkēlon, deíkelon) ‘imitation’, ‘presentation’ [cf. 1]. The anecdote in Plutarch ( Apophthegmata Laconica 212ef Plut. apophth. Lac. 212ef; cf. Agesilaus 21Plut. Agesilaus 21) demonstrates the inferior…

Homeric Hymns

(1,440 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
[German version] I. Genre and presentation The term Homeric Hymns (HH) refers to thirty-three poems in dactylic hexameters, which have been preserved together with the hymns of  Callimachus [3], the Orphic hymns ( Orphism), and the hymns of  Proclus [2], and are addressed to single Olympic deities or to a group of Olympic deities acting as a unity (text: [1; 2; 4; 8]). The length of the hymns addressed to  Apollo (H. Hom. 3),  Hermes (H. Hom. 4) and  Aphrodite (H. Hom. 6) is comparable to that of an individual book of Homer ( c. 300-500 verses;  Homer [1]), the others are shorter, somet…

Andocides

(738 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Ἀνδοκίδης Λεωγόρου Κυδαθηναιεύς; Andokídēs Leōgórou Kydathēnaieús). [German version] A. Person The Attic orator A. was born 440 BC as member of an old aristocratic family [1. 27-32], which boasted that they were descended from Hermes (Hellanicus in Plut. Alcibiades 21,201-202b, vita 1). Already before 415 BC A. belonged to a hetairia of similarly-minded people, whom, according to Plut. Themistocles 32,128e, he sought to incite against the Democrats in a text, Πρὸς τοὺς Ἑταίρους ( Pròs toùs Hetaírous). Should it be the case that the fourth speech ‘Against Alcibiades’ i…

Herodas, Herondas

(1,544 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(originally probably Ἡρώιδας ( Hērṓidas), later Ἡρώδας ( Hērṓdas); Ἡρώνδας ( Hērṓndas) only in Ath. 3,86b). [German version] A. On the person The Hellenistic author wrote dramatic verse sketches in the choliambic metre ( Metre). He lived, according to contemporary allusions in his poems, in the 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC and was a contemporary of  Theocritus and  Callimachus (1,30: ‘twin temple’ of Ptolemy II Philadelphus and his sister Arsinoë [II 3]; 1,31: Museion in Alexandria; 4,23-26: the sons of Praxiteles; 4…

Homerische Hymnen

(1,328 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D.
[English version] I. Gattung und Vortrag Als H. H. werden 33 Gedichte in daktylischen Hexametern bezeichnet, die zusammen mit den Hymnen (= H.) des Kallimachos [3], den Orphischen H. (Orphik) und den H. des Proklos [2] überl. sind und sich an einzelne oder an eine als Einheit auftretende Gruppe Olympischer Götter wenden (Text: [1; 2; 4; 8]). Die an Apollon (Hom. h. 3), Hermes (Hom. h. 4) und Aphrodite (Hom. h. 6) gerichteten H. sind in ihrer Länge mit einem homerischen Gesang (ca. 300-500 V.; Homeros …

Feuer

(1,529 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(πῦρ, ignis). [English version] A. Herstellung Im praktischen Leben verwendeten die Griechen schon seit homer. Zeit F. zum Kochen, Schmieden, Opfern, Brennen von Keramik, zur Brandbestattung, Wärmung, Beleuchtung, als Signal, Waffe, zur Reinigung und zur Gewinnung von Erz. Man rieb Stöcke (πυρεῖα, Theophr. De igne 64 Coutant) aneinander oder schlug geeignete Steine zusammen, um F. zu zünden, hielt als Feuerquelle eine ständig brennende Öllampe oder einen glühenden Narthex-Stab bereit (Hes. theog. 567). Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) [English version] B. Griechische Mytho…

Euphronios

(129 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D.
[English version] [3] griech. Dichter und Grammatiker, 3. Jh. v. Chr. Griech. Dichter und Grammatiker, E. 3. Jh. v. Chr.; geb. in Cherronesos bei Kyrene nach Heph. p. 56; Pelusion im Nildelta erwähnt CollAlex 176,3. E. war Lehrer des Aristophanes [4] von Byzantion (Suda s. v. Ἀριστοφάνης Βυζάντιος). Er verfaßte Komm. zur att. Komödie [2]; er dichtete Priapea (Georgios Choiroboskos Komm. in Heph. p. 241 Consbruch; vgl. Strab. 8,382). Das einzige in diesem Metrum (Glykoneus und Pherekrateus, vgl. Metrik V., …

Wettkampf Homers und Hesiods

(690 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D.
[English version] (Ἀγὼν Ὁμήρου καὶ Ἡσιόδου/ Agṓn Homḗru kai Hēsiódu, lat. Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi, = ‘W. H. H.). Der in nur einer Hs. (Cod. Laurentianus Graecus 56,1) überlieferte ‘W. H. H. gehört zur ant. anekdotisch-biographischen Trad. um berühmte Dichter und Denker (vgl. Biographie). Das Werk, eine Kompilation aus Prosa und Hexameterversen, wurde (verm. im Zuge der Zweiten Sophistik) während oder kurz nach der Regierungszeit Kaiser Hadrians (117-138 n. Chr.) verfaßt, da der Autor in Z. 33-43 das Hadria…

Herodas, Herondas

(1,353 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(urspr. wohl Ἡρώιδας, später Ἡρώδας; Ἡρώνδας nur bei Athen. 3,86b). [English version] A. Zur Person Der hell. Dichter verfaßte dramatische Vers-Skizzen im choliambischen Versmaß (Metrik). Er lebte nach zeitgenössischen Anspielungen in seinen Gedichten in der 1. H. des 3. Jh. v.Chr. und war Zeitgenosse von Theokritos und Kallimachos (1,30: “Zwillingstempel” von Ptolemaios II. Philadelphos und seiner Schwester Arsinoë [II 3]; 1,31: Museion in Alexandreia; 4,23-26: die Söhne des Praxiteles; 4,76-78: Apelles; 2,16…

Deikeliktai

(89 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
[English version] (Δεικηλίκται). Nach Athen. 14,621d-f lakonische Bezeichnung für Darsteller im einfachen Straßentheater, die possenhafte Einzelszenen wie ‘Obstdiebe oder ‘Der auswärtige Arzt spielten (= μίμοι, μιμολόγοι). Trotz variabler Schreibweise (δικηλισταί, δεικελισταί, δεικηλικταί) leiten Suda sowie Hss. das Wort D. von δίκηλον, δείκελον, “Nachahmung”, “Darstellung”, ab [vgl. 1]. Die Anekdote bei Plutarch ( apophthegmata Laconica 212efPlut. apophth. Lac. 212ef; vgl. Agesilaos 21Plut. Agesilaos 21) zeigt den niederen Rang eines D. einem trag. Sch…

Fire

(624 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D.
[German Version] The religious significance of fire is in many cultures associated partly with its seemingly uncanny power and partly with its practical usefulness (food preparation, crafts and trade, source of light and warmth). From even the earliest witnesses (Mycenaean), the domestic hearth possessed a central significance in antiquity that came to cultic expression in the veneration of a female goddess of the hearth (Greek Hestia, Latin Vesta) and of a fire-emitting domestic and father god (Z…

Sophron

(759 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. | Ameling, Walter
(Σώφρων). [English version] [1] Dichter, 2. H. 5. Jh. v. Chr. aus Syrakus. Laut Suda σ 893 ungefähr zeitgleich mit (Arta)Xerxes in Persien und Euripides in Athen, d. h. in der 2. H. des 5. Jh. v. Chr. Dazu paßt die Überl., sein Sohn Xenarchos habe einen Mimos komponiert, der auf ein histor. Ereignis vom J. 394 oder 389 v. Chr. anspielt (fr. 1; 4 Olivieri; [1. 59]). Berühmtheit erlangte S. durch seine Mimoi (=M.), quasi-dramatische Dialoge oder Monologe in einer Art rhythmischer Prosa, die Charaktere aus de…

Sotades

(630 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas | Furley, William D.
(Σωτάδης). [English version] [1] att. Dichter der Mittleren Komödie, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Att. Dichter der Mittleren Komödie (4. Jh. v. Chr.), von Athenaios und der Suda ausdrücklich als solcher bezeichnet [1. test. 1.2]. Aus dem Stück Ἐγκλειόμεναι (oder -οι; ‘Die Eingesperrten), zitiert Athenaios 35 Verse, in denen ein Koch ausführlich über seine Kunst der Fischzubereitung spricht (fr. 1). Ferner sind bei Athenaios zwei Verse aus dem Παραλυτρούμενος ( Paralytrúmenos, ‘Der Freigekaufte; fr. 3) sowie in einem Hiob-Komm. fünf Verse aus einem unbekannten Stück überl. (f…

Mime

(2,861 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Benz, Lore (Kiel)
(μῖμος/ mîmos, lat. mimus). I. Greek [German version] A. General remarks Mimos signifies in the first place the actor in the popular theatre, then the play itself in which he - alone or with a small number of others - portrays human types by word and gesture (cf. μιμέομαι , miméomai: imitate) in for the most part comic or coarse scenes. Relying on the Aristotelian concept of mimesis, Diomedes gives the definition (GL I p. 491): Μῖμός ἐστιν μίμησις βίου τά τε συγκεχωρημένα καὶ ἀσυγχώρητα περιέχων, ‘Mimos is an imitation of life encompassing what is allowed and what is forbidden’. Mimoi performe…

Sotades

(714 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Σωτάδης/ Sōtádes). [German version] [1] Attic poet of the Middle Comedy, 4th cent. BC Attic poet of the Middle Comedy (4th cent. BC), explicitly referred to as such by Athenaeus and the Suda [1. test. 1.2]. Athenaeus quotes 35 verses from the play Ἐγκλειόμεναι/ Enkleiómenai (or -οι/- oi; 'The Incarcerated') in which a cook speaks at length about his skill of preparing fish (fr. 1). Furthermore, two verses from the Παραλυτρούμενος ( Paralytroúmenos, 'The Redeemed Prisoner'; fr. 3) were transmitted by Athenaeus (fr. 4) and in a commentary on Job five verses from an u…

Philistion

(546 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Φιλιστίων; Philistíōn). [German version] [1] P. of Locri Greek physician, 4th cent. BC Physician from Locri in Italy, active around 364 BC. He is said by Plato's 2nd letter to have been the personal physician of Dionysius [2] II at Syracuse in that year. However, a fragment of the comic poet Epicrates [4] (Ath. 2,59c) has been plausibly interpreted to mean that he arrived at Athens soon after this. He wrote about dietetics, pharmacology and surgery. The Anonymus Londiniensis (20,25ff. = fragment 4 Wellmann)…

Sophron

(861 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Σώφρων/ Sṓphrōn). [German version] [1] Poet, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC from Syracuse. According to Suda σ 893, approximately contemporaneous with (Arta)Xerxes in Persia and Euripides in Athens, i.e. from the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC. This is in keeping with the traditional belief that his son Xenarchus composed a mime that referred to a historical event occurring in 394 or 389 BC (fr. 1; 4 Olivieri; [1. 59]). S. became famous for his mimoi, quasi-dramatic dialogues or monologues in a kind of rhythmic prose that depicted everyday characters for humorous purposes t…

Cercidas

(694 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Κερκιδᾶς, Κερκίδας; Kerkidâs, Kerkídas). [German version] [1] Arcadian orator, supposedly acting in the political interest of Philippus II C., an Arcadian orator mentioned by  Demosthenes [2] (Dem. Or. 18,295) in his famous ‘list of traitors’ in the speech ‘On the Crown’ and supposedly acting in the political interest of  Philippus II (similar also Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 119; Pol. 18,14,1-2). The conclusiveness of the accusations by Demosthenes and Theopompus can no longer be verified. C. was descended from a rich…
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