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(932 words)

Author(s): Frick, Heike
The development of the genre of manhua in China is closely linked to the emergence of the modern press and a critical, politically interested public (public sphere and public opinion). Both emerged after 1895, above all in the Treaty Ports. The first attempts of caricatures in the modern sense date back to the end of the Qing period, when larger newspapers started to depict the conflicts and weaknesses of Qing officials graphically. Aside from Western and Japanese influences, caricature in China could…

Childhood and Youth

(1,005 words)

Author(s): Frick, Heike
Childhood and youth are socially and culturally formed constructs. Different factors, such as region, local custom, gender, the affiliation with social groups, and concepts of child and childhood, influence the way in which children live and experience the world. Three fundamental changes in the ideas about childhood have been apparent in modern China. The first set in during the late 19th and early 20th centuries when Confucian ethics lost its normative character. A second change occurred in 19…