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Ma Ming-hsin

(1,965 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A. D. W.
( Matthew’s Chinese-English Dictionary, éd. amer, révisée 1969, caractères nos 4310, 4534, 2735) également connu sous le nom de Muḥammad Amīn, leader musulman chinois ¶ du milieu du XIIe/XVIIIe siècle qui fut l’instrument du développement et de la diffusion du «Nouvel Enseignement», mouvement réformiste néo-orthodoxe de l’Islam chinois qui se répandit dans le Nordouest de la Chine durant la seconde moitié du XIIe/XVIIIe siècle et joua un rôle important dans la grande révolte de Ma Hua-lung [ q.v.] au milieu du XIIIe/XIXe. Ma Ming-hsin naquit, à une date inconnue, dans la prem…

Laquedives

(1,437 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A. D. W.
, ou Lakkadives, groupe d’îles coralliennes du Sud-est de la mer d’Oman, au large de la côte indienne de Malabar (8°-12° 30′ N. et 71°-74° E.). Sous la domination britannique de l’Inde, elles étaient appelées «Laccadive Minicoy and Amindivi Islands», mais, à partir de 1956, l’ensemble du groupe fut placé sous une administration unique et forma le territoire de l’Union indienne de Lakshadweep (du sanscrit Lakṣadvīpa «les cent mille îles»). Il s’agit en tout de 27 îles et îlots dont dix, Maliku, Kalpeni, Kavrathi, Androth, Agathi, Amini, Kadmat, Kiltan, Bitra e…

Maʿbar

(1,526 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A. D. W.
, nom que les Arabes du moyen âge donnaient au littoral oriental du Deccan correspondant en gros, mais pas exactement, à la ¶ côte de Coromandel (dont l’appellation vient du tamul čolamaṅdalam «royaume des Čolas» appliqué à la région autrefois gouvernée par les rād̲j̲ās colas de leur capitale Tānjavur (Tand̲j̲ore); de lá, l’autre nom arabo-persan, Barr al-Ṣūliydn ou Ṣhūliyān (Tibbets, 466), «côte des Čolas»). En arabe, maʿbar signifie «passage» ou «point où l’on traverse». Appliqué au Coromandel, ce terme a été largement interprété comme une référence au rôle …

Malabar

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A. D. W.
, nom donné au moyen âge par les marins arabes et persans à la région côtière du Sud-ouest du Deccan qui produisait du poivre; elle correspond approximativement à l’État actuel du Kerala. Ce nom provient probablement d’une combinaison du terme dravidien malai «montagne» et du persan bār «pays» (Logan, I, 1), quoique l’élément bār puisse aussi bien venir de l’arabe barr «continent» ou du sanskrit vāra «pente» ( Hobson-Jobson, 539; cf. Madras glossary, 460). Malabar n’est généralement pas employé par les autochtones, qui lui préfèrent traditionnellement le dravidien Malayaĺam «pays m…

Ma Huan

(1,453 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A. D. W.
( Mathew’s Chinese-English dictionary édition américaine révisée de 1969, caract. nos 4310, 2266), interprète et voyageur musulman chinois qui vivait au IXe/XVe siècle; il est l’auteur du Ying-yai cheng-lan (description générale du littoral océanique) qui est le récit le plus connu des expéditions maritimes opérées, au début et jusqu’au milieu du IXe/XVe siècle, par les Ming en Asie du Sud et du Sud-ouest, dans la péninsule Arabique et en Afrique orientale. Ma Huan naquit vers 782/1380 à Kuei-tchi, quartier de la ville de Chao-Lsing, dans la province du Tchekiang, …

Ma Tchung-ying

(2,691 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A. D. W.
( Matthew’s Chinese-English Dictionary, éd. amer, révisée 1969, caractères nos 4310, 1505, 7489), également appelé Ğa Ssuling «Petit Commandant» (Ga est un hypocoristique employé dans le chinois parlé au Kansu; voir le Hsin-Hua tzu-tien, Pékin 1971, 124; Ssu-ling dans Matthews’ Dict., nos 5585, 4043), le plus jeune et le plus connu des cinq chefs de guerre musulmans chinois constituant la clique dite «Wu Ma» [ q.v.] qui domina une grande partie du Nord-ouest de la Chine pendant la seconde moitié de la période républicaine (1911-49). Les premières années de Ma Tchung-ying sont ma…

Ma Hua-lung

(2,505 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A. D. W.
( Matthews’ Chinese-English dictionary, éd. amér, revue, 1969, caractères nos 4310, 2211, 4258), également connu sous le nom de Ma Tch’ao-Tch’ing (Matthews’, nos 4310, 233, 1171), leader musulman chinois et avocat du «Nouvel Enseignement» [voir Ma-Ming-hsin], qui joua un rôle important dans les grands soulèvements des Musulmans contre la dynastie des Tch’ing au milieu du XIXe siècle. Il naquit dans la première moitié du siècle, probablement à Tchin-tchi-p’u (Hartmann, Geschichte, 14), ¶ qui est une ville fortifiée de la province de Ninghsia [ q.v.], sur la rive droite du Fleuv…

Minicoy

(1,051 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
, an isolated coral atoll, the southernmost of the Indian Laks̲h̲advīp group [see laccadives ], situated in the south-eastern Arabian Sea, off the coast of Malabar [ q.v.] in lat. 8°7′N, long. 73°19′E. The atoll comprises two islands—the main, inhabited island of Minicoy (known to its inhabitants as Maliku), and the much smaller, uninhabited islet of Vilingili, marked on British Admiralty maps as “Small-pox Island” (a reference to its former use by the islanders as a quarantine station)—as well as extensive coral reefs en…

Ma Huan

(1,441 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
( Matthews’ Chinese-English dictionary, Revised American Edition 1969, characters no. 4310, 2266), Chinese Muslim interpreter and traveller who flourished during the 9th/15th century and who was the author of Ying-yai shenglan (“The overall survey of the ocean’s shores”), the best-known account of the early and mid-9th/15th century Ming Chinese maritime expeditions to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa. ¶ Ma Huan was born ca. 782/1380 in Kuei-chi, a district of Shao-hsing city, Chekiang Province. His home was about 24 miles south-…

Liu Chih

(1,827 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
( Matthew’ Chinese-English dictionary , Revised American edition 1969, characters nos. 4093, 933), also known as Liu Chiai-lien ( Matthews’ , nos. 4093, 629, 4003), 12th/18th century Chinese Muslim scholar (translator, theologian, philosopher and biographer of the Prophet Muḥammad), the most prolific Chinese Muslim author and probably the best-known literary figure yet produced by the Chinese Muslim community. A Hui (Chinese-speaking) Muslim, Liu Chih was born in Nanking ca. 1081/1670. Little is known of his class background or early childhood, but it is safe to…

Ma Hua-Lung

(2,450 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
( Matthews’ Chinese-English dictionary, Revised American Edition 1969, characters nos. 4310, 2211, 4258), also known ma ch’aoching ( Matthews’ , nos. 4310, 233, 1171), a Chinese Muslim leader and exponent of the “New Teaching” who played an important part in the great mid-13th/19th century Muslim risings against the Ch’ing dynasty. Ma Hua-lung was born at an unknown date during the first half of the 13th/19th century, probably at Ch’in-chi-p’u (Hartmann, op. cit. in Bibl ., 14), a walled city in Ninghsia [ q.v.] province situated on the right bank of the Yellow River some 80 …

Malabar

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
, the name first given by Arab and Persian mariners in mediaeval times to a pepperproducing coastal region of the southwestern Indian Deccan approximately conterminous with the modern state of Kerala. The name “Malabar” is probably derived from a combination of the Dravidian term malai = “mountain” and the Persian bār = “country” (Logan, i, 1), though the affix bar may alternatively be derived from the Arabic barr = “a continent”, or the Sanskrit vāra = “a slope” ( Hobson-Jobson , 539; cf. Madras glossary, 460). The name Malabar is not generally employed by the indigenous inhab…

Madras

(965 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
, a major port and city on the Coromandel coast of southeastern peninsular India, in lat. 13°4′ N. and 80°15′ E., formerly a governorship of the presidency of the same name (the latter comprising the eastern coast of India from Cape Comorin to Lake Chilka in present-day Orissa, as well as a large part of the interior of the Deccan, and the northern Malabar coast); since independence the capital of the Indian Union State of Tamil Nadu. 1. Nomenclature. The origin of the name “Madras” has been much debated. Perhaps the two most plausible explanations are offered by Hobson Jobson

Mergui

(2,141 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
, the name of an archipelago, district and town in southern Burma, on the eastern s̲h̲ores of the Bay of Bengal, facing the Andaman Sea. 1. Mergui archipelago. This is a large group of islands (said to number 804), commencing in the north with Tavoy Island ( ca. 13° 13′ N.), and stretching southwards beyond Point Victoria into Thai waters, terminating beyond Ko Chan in ca. 8° 50′ N. The indigenous population of sea nomads, known to themselves as Moken, to the Burmese as Salôn, to the Thais as Chao Nam or Chao Lay and to the Malays as Oran Laut ("boat people"), numbered 868 according to the 1884 Mergui …

Ma Ming-Hsin

(2,058 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
( Matthews’ Chinese-English Dictionary, Revised American Edition 1969, characters nos. 4310, 4534, 2735), also known as Muḥammad Amīn , a Chinese Muslim leader of the mid-12th/18th century who was instrumental in the development and spread of the “New Teaching”, a neo-orthodox reformist movement in Chinese Islam which swept Northwest China in the latter half of the 12th/18th century, and which played an important part in the great mid-13th/19th century Muslim revolt of Ma Hua-lung [ q.v.]. Ma Ming-hsin was born at an unknown date during the first h…

Maʿbar

(1,525 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
, the name given by the Arabs in mediaeval times to the eastern shores of the Indian Deccan, an area corresponding closely, but not exactly, to the Coromandel coast (the latter name from the Tamil Čolamaṇḍalam , “the realm of the Cholas”, indicating the area formerly ruled by the Tamil Chola rād̲j̲ās from their capital at Tānd̲j̲āvūr (Tanjore); hence the alternative Arabo-Persian name, Barr al-Ṣūliyān or Ṣhūliyān (Tibbetts, op. cit. in Bibl ., 466), “the coast of the Cholas”). In Arabic, the term maʿbar signifies a passage or crossing point. In its applic…

Laccadives

(1,368 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
, a group of coral islands in the south-eastern Arabian Sea lying off the Malabar Coast of India between lat. 8° and 12°30′ N., and between long. 71° and 74° E. Under British Indian rule these were formerly the Laccadive Minicoy and Amindivi Islands; but in 1956 the group was brought under a single administration to form the Indian Union Territory of Lakshadweep (Sanskrit: Lakṣadvīpa “the hundred thousand islands”). There are in all 27 islands and islets of which ten—Maliku, Kalpeni, Kavrathi, Androth, Agathi, Amin…

Mauritius

(887 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
, an island of the southwestern Indian Ocean, one of the Three Mascarene Islands (together with Réunion and Rodrigues), located some 2,300 miles (3,680 km) north-west of Cape Town, a similar distance south south-east of Aden, and 2,000 miles (3,200 km) southwest of Colombo. Although probably known to Arab navigators from as early as the 12th century A.D., none of the Mascarene Islands (or of the more northerly Seychelles) were ever colonised by Muslim—or any other—peoples before their discovery by Europeans in the early 16th century A.D. During subsequent centuries, the Island of ¶ …

Ma Chung-Ying

(2,661 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
( Matthews’ Chinese-English Dictionary , Revised American Edition 1969, characters nos. 4310, 1505, 7489), also known as ǧa ssuling , or “Little Commander” ( Ǧa is an affectionate diminutive used in colloquial Kansu Chinese—see the Hsin-Hua tzu-tien , Peking 1971, 124; Ssu-ling: see Matthews’ , nos. 5585, 4043), the youngest and best-known of the five Chinese Muslim warlords comprising the “Wu Ma” clique [ q.v.] which controlled much of Northwest China during the latter half of the Republican Period (1911-49). Little is known of Ma Chung-ying’s early years. ¶ He was born at Linhsia…

Maurice

(906 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
, île située dans le Sud-ouest de l’Océan Indien, à 3 680 km au Nord-ouest du Cap, à une distance similaire au Sud-Sud-est d’Aden et à 3 200 km au Sud-ouest de Colombo. Avec la Réunion et Rodrigues, elle constitue une des trois Mascareignes. Bien que probablement connues des navigateurs arabes dès le VIe/XIIe siècle, aucune des îles mascareignes (ou, plus au Nord, des Seychelles) ne fut jamais colonisée par des Musulmans ou d’autres peuples avant leur découverte par les Européens au début du XVIe siècle de J.-C. Au cours des siècles suivants, l’île Maurice (ainsi nommée par les…
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