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2.2.7. Heuneburg

(784 words)

Author(s): Fernández-Götz, Manuel | Krausse, Dirk
A. Overview of the site [German source] Heuneburg on the upper Danube is one of the most important archaeological sites of Central Europe and is justifiably claimed to be the oldest town north of the Alps. It is very possible that this is the polis that Herodotus (2,33) calls Pyrene. An extensive settlement complex undoubtedly existed here during the later  Hallstatt period (620–450). At its height, it covered up to 100 ha and, according to recent estimates, had a population of approximately 5,000 inhabitants [1]; [3].The site is divided into three major areas, called the Burgberg (‘cita…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.1.6. Cogotas I Culture

(693 words)

Author(s): Ruiz Zapatero, Gonzalo | Fernández-Götz, Manuel
A. Definition and findings [German source] Cogotas I was an archaeological culture of the MBA (Proto-Cogotas Phase: ca. 18th – mid-15th cents.) and especially LBA (ca. mid-15th cent. – end of 2nd mill.) in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula. It is characterized by the existence of small groups of itinerant herders, living in small villages or camp grounds with simple huts. Few graves are known; they probably did not follow the same burial customs as usual elsewhere. The people of Cogotas I manufactured distinctive pottery, some with incised decorations and some in the so-called boqui…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.1.11. Early Celtiberian culture

(732 words)

Author(s): Fernández-Götz, Manuel | Ruiz Zapatero, Gonzalo
A. Definition and periodization [German source] The Celtiberians, well known from Greek and Roman written sources of the 2nd and 1st millennia [1], originated in the 6th century in the east central region of the Iberian Peninsula (northeast of the meseta and the right bank of the middle reaches of the Ebro). Their world ended, symbolized by the fall of the city of Numantia in 133, in Roman conquest and integration into the Roman Empire. The roots of the Celtiberians’ language, their social, economic and religious organization and thei…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.1.7. Soto de Medinilla Culture

(703 words)

Author(s): Ruiz Zapatero, Gonzalo | Fernández-Götz, Manuel
A. Definition and periodization [German source] The Soto de Medinilla Culture is an archaeological group at the transition from the BA to the IA and during the EIA (9th–5th cents.) in the middle Duero Valley, named after the find site at  El Soto de Medinilla (Valladolid). The culture may be divided chronologically into a formative phase in the 9th and 8th centuries and a mature phase from the 7th to the 5th century.Settlements of round mud-brick buildings in the middle Duero Valley, particularly in the fertile tributary floodplains of the right bank, form full-fled…
Date: 2018-08-16