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Lilybaeum

(276 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Christianity | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Λιλύβαιον/ Lilýbaion, Λιλύβη/ Lilýbē; Latin Lilybaeum, -on). Foothills (modern Capo Boeo) and town (modern Marsala) in the most western part of Sicily, c. 140 km from Carthage; founded by the Carthaginians and heavily fortified after the Punic base Motya had been destroyed in 397 BC by Dionysius I. The fortress defied repeated attacks by the Greeks (in 368 under Dionysius, …

Gaulus

(225 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Γαῦλος, Γαῦδος; Gaûlos, Gaûdos). North-western island of the Malta group (modern Gozo), first mentioned by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 341; cf. Str. 6,2,11; Diod. Sic. 5,12,4: located in the open sea with good harbours; Procop. Vand. 1,14; Plin. HN 3,92). Name probably Phoenician: γαῦλος/ gaûlos, ‘round cargo boat’. In the 8th cent. it was colonized by Phoenicians, later in Carthaginian, Greek, and after 220 BC Roman possession. Inland there was a settlement of the same name. Coins with Greek and Punic legends (HN 883). In Ggantij…

Phocaeae

(86 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φωκαῖαι/ Phokaîai). Unidentified quarter (χωρίον/ chōríon) of the city of Leontini. Some aristocrats from Leontini, who had gone away and settled in Syracuse (Syracusae) but then left again because of  conflicts, withdrew to Ph. and the nearby fortress of Bricinniae in 422 BC. Many of the democrats previously driven out of Leontini also soon gathered here in order to take up the fight with Syracuse (Thuc. 5,4,4). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 218.

Catane

(544 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Natural catastrophes (Κατάνη; Katánē, Lat. Catina). City on the east coast of Sicily on the fertile plain south of the volcano Mount  Etna [1], modern Catania; it was founded in 729 BC by Chalcidians who had some years previously settled in Naxos. In the 2nd half of the 6th cent., the lawgiver  Charondas was active in C; the town was visited by  Ibycus and  Xenophanes;  Stesichorus died there. In the 1st half of…

Camarina

(848 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | | Colonization | Punic Wars (Καμάρινα; Kamárina, Lat. Camarina, Camerina). Dorian town 60 km west of the southern tip of Sicily on a hillside of about 40 m in height, at the mouth of the Hipparis. The foundation by  Syracusae in 599 BC (Thuc. 6,5,3) marked the end of the Dorian-Syracusan expansion into the south-western hinterland. Its original foundation may have taken place from the sea; however, contact by land must soon have been established,…

Pantacyas

(71 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Παντακύας/ Pantakýas, Παντακίας/ Pantakías). River on the eastern coast of Sicily flowing into the Bay of Catane in the south near Brucoli, the modern Porcaria. In 729 BC. Lamis of Megara founded the settlement of Trotilum on the P. although it was abandoned shortly after. Other refererences: Thuc. 6,4,1; cf. Plin. HN 3,89: Pantagies; Ptol. 3,4,9: Παντάχου ποταμοῦ ἐσβολαί. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. P., RE 18, 686.

Echetla

(112 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἐχέτλα; Echétla). Town in the interior of Sicily, neighbouring Leontini, Syracusae and Camarina (Diod. Sic. 20,32), in the border region between the spheres of influence of Carthage and Hieron II (Pol. 1,15,10). Besieged by the Romans at the beginning of the 1st Punic War. Plin. HN 3,91 calls the citizens of E. stipendiarii. Judging from the similarity in name, E. was located on the hill Occhialà near Grammichele east of Caltagirone where Siculan-Greek remains and a Demeter sanctuary were found. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography D. Palermo, s.v. Grammichele, …

Eryx

(583 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(ὁ Ἔρυξ/ ho Éryx, Lat. Eryx, Erucus, Erycus). [German version] [1] Mountain in western Sicily High, isolated mountain in western Sicily (751 m), now Monte San Giuliano. Settled even in prehistoric times, with a famous sanctuary to the probably Phoenician goddess of E., identified as Aphrodite by the Greeks, later (Thuc. 6,2,3) became a polis of the  Elymaeans. The attempt by Dorieus to establish a Greek colony (around 510 BC) ended in his destruction by the Phoenicians and the Elymaeans of Segesta (Hdt. 5,43-4…

Mutustratum

(165 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μυτίστρατον; Mytístraton/ Lat. Mutustratum). Town of the Siculi in Sicily. According to the distribution of coin finds (from the period of Timoleon, HN 158), probably located near Marianopoli (30 km west of Henna [1] (modern Enna)). At the beginning of the 1st Punic War, M. was besieged for seven months by the Romans without success. The Romans suffered great losses (Diod. Sic. 23,9,3) and only conquered the town in 258 BC. After the withdrawal of the Carthaginian garrison and the c…

Phalarium

(56 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φαλάριον; Phalárion). Fortress (φρούριον; phroúrion) near Gela in Sicily, probably the fortification complex discovered on Monte Desusino (429 m high), founded in the 6th cent. BC by Phalaris. Here Agathocles [2] was encamped in 311 BC in the battle against the Carthagians (Diod. Sic. 19,108,2). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 7, 407f.; 10, 331-334.

Segesta

(657 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Mennella, Giovanni (Genoa) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] City in Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages (Σέγεστα/ Ségesta, Ἔγεστα/ É gesta, Αἵγεστα/ Haígesta). City (elevation 318 m) of the Elymi, like Entella and Eryx [1] in the west of Sicily (with map), 10 km to the southwest of Castellammare; the acropolis towers over the city to the northwest on Monte Bàrbaro (431 m). In traditional rivalry with Selinus [4] (earliest verifiable conflict 580/576 BC; Diod. Sic. 5,9), S. opposed Greek occup…

Engyon

(119 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἔγγυον; Énguon). City in the interior of Sicily, supposedly founded by Cretans (Diod. Sic. 4,79; Plut. Marcellus 20), taken by Timoleon from the tyrant Leptines (Diod. Sic. 16,72); in the 2nd Punic War on the side of Carthage and yet treated gently by Marcellus (Plut., ibid.); according to Cic. Verr. 3,103 a civitas decumana, according to Plin. HN 3,91 stipendiarii; the sanctuary of the ‘mothers’ (Plut. ibid.) was famous, in Cic. Verr. 2,4,97 of the Mater Magna, 2,5,186 Mater Idaea, with relics of Meriones and Odysseus. Undoubtedly identical with Troina [1. 13013; 2]. F…

Naxos

(1,805 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] [1] Island and city in the Cyclades This item can be found on the following maps: Ionic | Marble | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine (Νάξος, Náxos, Latin Naxus). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Geography City and island of the same name, the latter, with an area of just 420 km2, the largest of the Cyclades. A significant topographical  characteristic is a chain of mountains dividing the island from north to south (highest peak the Zia at 1004 m, also the highest poi…

Megara

(2,675 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Creon (Μεγάρα/ Megára, Μεγάρη/ Megárē). Daughter of Creon [1] of Thebes, wife of Heracles [1] (Hom. Od. 11,269-270), who had received her hand in thanks for the liberation of Thebes from tribute to Erginus, and mother of some of the Heraclidae. Whereas the Thebans according to Paus. 9,11,2 tell of the insane Heracles' infanticide (on his insanity Cypria p. 40,28f. PEG) as nothing other than what Stesichorus (= 230 PMGF) and Panyassis (= fr. 1 PEG) relate, the version of P…

Mons Nebrodes

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νεβρώδη ὄρη/ Nebrṓdé όrē). Densely-wooded mountains, which ‘rise opposite Etna, lower than it, but broader’ (Strab. 6,2,9); the modern Monti Nébrodi and Monti Madoníe in north-western Sicily (north-west of Etna), where according to Sil. 14,236f. both rivers known as Himeras rose. Probably named after nebrós/νεβρός, ‘stag’ (Solin. 5,12). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2157.

Euboea

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Εὔβοια; Eúboia). [1] Greek island [German version] I. Location The largest Greek island other than Crete extends parallel to the eastern coast of central Greece (Locris, Boeotia and Attica). E. is about 160 km long, about 5.5 to 50 km wide and has an area of 3,580 km2. It is separated by a strait from the mainland which narrows at its centre to a 40-m wide channel, the  Euripus [1]. Since the 5th cent. BC several bridges linked E. at this point to the mainland. Because of its steep cliffs the east coast is almost inaccessible with Cyme a…

Mazara

(125 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] Town on the Sicilian south coast 20 km southeast of Marsala at the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Mazara del Vallo, probably a Phoenician foundation. After the foundation of Selinus, the Mazara river was the border to Motya (later Lilybaeum) and Segesta and was therefore much disputed. In 409 BC, the town was conquered by Hannibal [1] on the march to Selinus (Diod. Sic. 13,54,6), and early in the First Punic War it was destroyed by the Romans (23,9,4) but continued to…

Casmenae

(415 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Κασμέναι; Kasménai). Town in Sicily, founded by Syracuse in 644 BC (Thuc. 6,5,3); its fortified position and the lack of its own mint indicate its status as a dependent ‘military colony’. In 554/3 BC, Camarina, supported by several Siculan communities, attempted to free itself from Syracusan dependency. In the ensuing war, in which C. supported Syracuse, the town was destroyed (Dion. Hal. Epist. ad Pompeium 5,5 = FGrH 556 Philistus F 5 with the reading of 1. 2361). The remains of an inscription on a bronze…

Merusium

(39 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μερούσιον; Meroúsion). Settlement of unknown location, 70 stadia (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 189) from Syracuse, probably in the vicinity of a sanctuary of Artemis Meroessa (Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 567.

Labdalum

(95 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Λάβδαλον; Lábdalon). Site at the northern rim of the Epipolai-Plateau of Syracusae, where a fortress was built by the Athenians in 414 BC. This was taken from them by Gylippus shortly after his arrival (Thuc. 6,97,5; 98,2; 7,3,4). Fabricius located it east of Scala Greca, above the descent of the antique roadway Syracusae - Megara from the plateau. Before him, it was thought to lie more to the west. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Fabricius, Das ant. Syrakus (Klio-Beih. 28), 1932, 19f. H.-D. Drögemüller, Syrakus, 1968, 15f., fi…
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