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Colossus Neronis

(260 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Colossus Solis). C. 40 m high, bronze portrait statue of Nero in Rome (Plin. HN 34,45; Suet. Nero 31; Mart. epigr. 2), conceived as a counterpart to his 120 foot high portrait on canvas in the horti Maiani (Plin. HN 35,51), near the vestibulum of the   domus aurea . The commissioned artist was  Zenodorus; Pliny visited his workshop and saw a clay model of the Colossus Neronis (HN 34,46). After the   damnatio memoriae of Nero, the colossus was transformed into a statue of Sol (Plin. HN 34,45; Suet. Vesp. 18); according to another tr…

Basilica Iulia

(213 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The Basilica lulia (BI) in Rome takes up the area between the Temple of Saturn and the Temple of the Dioscuri, bordered to the west by the vicus Iugarius and to the east by the vicus Tuscus. It was built on top of the  Basilica Sempronia as well as the house underneath, which was owned supposedly by Scipio Africanus. Remnants of both houses were found. The new BI also displaced the tabernae veteres and it is likely that the bordering streets had to be moved as well. Construction began in the year 54 BC ( Basilica Aemilia) and was completed by Augustus…

Basilica Fulvia

(255 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Built in Rome in 179 BC on instruction from the censors M. Aemilius Lepidus and M. Fulvius Nobilior (Liv. 40, 51, 2f.). It is possible that a previous building from 210 BC was incorporated (Plaut. Capt. 815; Plaut. Curc. 472). In 78 BC, the consul in office, M. Aemilius Lepidus, intervened in the construction (Plin. HN 35, 13);  Basilica Aemilia. H. Bauer developed an outline of the basic shape based on sparse structural remnants. Judging from the north-east corner of its foundation, the portico was located in front of the tabernae and ran 3 m behind the portico from …

Domus Laterani

(188 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] In the written sources an aedes Lateranorum by Plautius Lateranus, the designated consul of the year 65, is attested in Rome during the Neronian period (Juv. 10,15,18; more regarding location near the Lateran basilica later: Jer. Ep. 77,4). An aedes Laterani (Ps.-Aur. Vict. Epit. 20,6) was created when Septimius Severus donated the aedes Parthorum to his senior commander T. Sextius Lateranus (PIR1 S 469). Three water pipelines (CIL XV 7536) bearing the names of Sextius Lateranus and his brother Sextius Torquatus (PIR1 S 478) were found in 1595 near the Lateran…

Apollinare

(46 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Possibly an area set aside in the prata Flaminia, Rome (Liv. 3, 63, 7), for the worship of Apollo, in which 431 BC a temple of Apollo had been erected in circo. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 12 F. Coarelli, in: LTUR 1, 48.

Basilica Neptuni

(191 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] A building in Rome restored by Hadrian (SHA Hadr. 19,10), possibly the reconstruction of the Poseidonion that had burned down in 80 BC under Titus. The building, now partially covered by the modern Via della Palombella, is located directly south of the Pantheon and west of the Porticus Argonautorum. The main room was a hall of about 45 × 20 m with a round alcove which probably housed a colossal statue. The short sides of the hall are narrower and hold rectangular alcoves, the long…

Esquiliae

(629 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] General term for the hills Cispius and Oppius in  Rome (Varro, Ling. 5,49). Here was the end of the plateau that extended to the Anio; and from it important aqueducts (Anio vetus 270 BC, Aqua Marcia 144 BC, Aqua Claudia and Anio novus AD 52) led into the city. The Anio novus that was incorporated into the Porta Maggiore is particularly impressive. A hasty and exhaustive redevelopment started in 1870/71 caused large-scale exposure and destruction, with which the documentation process could not keep pace; as a result, the considerable number o…

Ager Vaticanus

(102 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Territory on the right bank of the Tiber (Plin. HN 3, 54; Liv. 10, 26,15) below the confluence of the Cremera. The area was used for farming and, just as the quality of its wines (Mart. 1, 18, 2; 6, 92, 3; 10, 45, 5; 12, 48, 14), was regarded as poor (Cic. Leg. agr. 2, 96). In the areas close to Rome, horti ( Gardens) were established in the 1st cent. BC, which later became imperial possessions. The more distant areas remained farmland up to late antiquity (Symmachus, Ep. 6, 58, 1). Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 405.

Basilica Porcia

(95 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Erected in 184 BC near the Curia Hostilia by Cato Censorius, financed from public funds (Plut. Cato mai. 19, 3; Plut. Cato min. 5, 1), Rome's oldest basilica. When Clodius was killed in 52 BC and his followers turned the Curia into his funeral pyre, the Basilica Porcia burned down as well. Two substructural rooms in opus incertum possibly stem from the Sullan building phase; they are located directly on the Clivus Lautumiarum (Clivus Argentarius) across from the carcer. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography E. M. Steinby, in: LTUR 1, 187 Richardson, 56.

Carinae

(226 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Two Roman municipal districts, separated by the murus terreus Carinarum, a part of the pre-Servian wall which still existed in Varro's times (Varro Ling. 5,48), between Esquiline and Palatine. As part of the Augustan reorganization, both districts were jointly assigned to regio IV (Templum Pacis); the origin of the name is disputed (Serv. Aen. 8,351; Hor. Epist. 1,7,48). The district was the most desirable residential area for the Roman nobility; it was said that, even in Archaic times,  T…

Cloaca maxima

(252 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The invention of the cloacae (Str. 5,8; Plin. HN 36,24) is stressed in ancient literature as one of the greatest achievements of civilization; Pliny (HN 36,105) ascribes it to  Tarquinius Priscus, others (Liv. 1,38,6; 1,56,2; Dion. Hal. 3,67,5; 4,44,1) to  Tarquinius Superbus. The edifice designated in Roman literature as Cloaca maxima (CM) (Liv. 1,56,2; Varro, Ling. 5,157) has not been located with certainty, but is generally identified which the largest sewage canal in Rome, preserv…

Basilica Opimia

(124 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] It was erected by the consul A.L. Opimius in 121 BC in Rome simultaneously with the Temple of Concordia, and was torn down possibly when the latter was rebuilt by Tiberius between 7 BC and AD 10. No relics are extant, which complicates the effort to localize the Basilica Opimia (BO) relative to the Temple of Concordia in the vicinity (Varro, Ling. 5, 156). We can therefore hardly determine whether we are dealing with an independent basilica or with only a room that had similar fun…

Basilica Hilariana

(149 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The Basilica Hilariana (BH), located within the modern Villa Celimontana on the Piazza della Navicella in Rome, was first discovered through its mosaic with the caption revealing its name. Close by, the base of a statue of Manius Publicus Hilarus was found, who had erected the building for the members of a cultic society. The statue had been a donation from the priests of the Cybele. Since 1987, an area of 30 × 35 m has been uncovered. Stamped bricks reveal that the BH dates to th…

Arco di Portogallo

(136 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Only known by its popular name, this arch was destroyed in 1662 by Pope Alexander VII in the course of extending the Via del Corso to the south of the Via delle Vite in Rome. Drawings by Dosio (before 1569) and Schenck (before 1705) show a single-arch building decorated on each side with column pairs of verde antico which carry an arabesque acanthus frieze on composite capitals. On its northern side, two extensively restored, possibly Hadrianic reliefs with the apotheosis of a woman (formerly ‘Apotheosis of Sabina’) as well as an adlocutio (both Rome, MC) were attached,…

Basilica Constantiniana

(195 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Basilica Nova; Basilica of Maxentius). The Basilica Constantiniana (BC) in Rome was begun by Maxentius and completed by Constantine (Aur. Vict. Caes. 40, 26), and is reminiscent of early republican local tradition in the area of the Velia. The base area of 100 × 65 m is dominated by a nave measuring 80 × 25 m. The middle aisle can be entered through five doors from a low entrance hall on the eastern narrow side and it ends in a western apse containing an acrolithic statue of seat…

Domus Aurea

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] As the successor building of the   domus transitoria , which was destroyed in the fire of AD 64, the domus aurea (DA) was still uncompleted at the time of Otho (Suet., Otho 7). Its main aspects were the extensive expropriation and inclusion of public space and the mobilization of all technical and artistic means in shaping an artificial world. After Nero's death the main areas, apart from the Palatine, were systematically returned to public use by the Flavians and Hadrian. The DA included the Palatine, the Oppius, the Caelius and the Velia. The city wall of th…

Aequimelium

(96 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Non-built-up district in Rome, regio VIII, in the south of the Forum Boarium near the northern foothills of the capitol. According to a widespread tradition (Varro, Ling. 5, 157; Liv. 4, 16, 1; Cic. Dom. 101; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 12, 4; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; Quint. Inst. 3, 7, 20), the house of the rich grain merchant Sp. Maelius was demolished here in 432 BC by order of the senate because he was said to have aspired to kingship. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 3 G. Pisani Sartorio, in: LTUR 1, 21.

Basilica Sempronia

(71 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Basilica on the north side of the  Forum Romanum in Rome, erected by  Sempronius Gracchus (censor in 169 BC). The house of P. Scipio Africanus and the tabernae veteres previously stood on the basilica's building lots, which were purchased with public funds. Remains from this sequence of buildings may have been uncovered under the  Basilica Iulia. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography I. Iacopi, in: LTUR 1, 187-188 Richardson, 56.

Domus transitoria

(428 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] In the period of his reign before the great fire of AD 64, which was followed by the building of the   domus aurea , Nero combined the horti Maecenatis on the Esquiline ( Esquiliae) with the palatial buildings on the Palatine ( Mons Palatinus) (Suet. Nero 31; Tac. Ann. 15,39). Preserved are a building section of the domus Tiberiana, walls at the sunken peristyle as well as under the aula regia and the cenatio Iovis of the later Flavian palace. The affinity of an elaborate vaulted hall in the terraces of the Hadrianic temple of Venus and Roma by the Vel…

Campus Martius

(555 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Field of Mars). Tract of land in Rome, shaped like an irregular quadrangle, between the Palazzo Venezia, S. Carlo al Corso, the Ponte Vittorio Emanuele, and the Piazza Cairoli. According to legend, with the foundation of the Republic, the campus Martius (CM) passed from Tarquinian (Dion. Hal. 5,13,2) to public ownership (Liv. 2,5,2; Plut. Poblicola 8,1). The level terrain, not fragmented by private property, was predestined for monumental architecture for public or representative purposes, as in Strabo's (5,3,8). desc…
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