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Campus Agrippae

(89 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Part of the   campus Martius in Rome; according to the Constantinian regionaries, it was located in regio VII to the right of the via Flaminia and north of the aqua Virgo; originally belonging to Agrippa, it was given to the Roman people by Augustus in 7 BC (Cass. Dio 55,8). According to one of the fragments of the acta fratrum Arvalium from AD 38, it was also the location of the Tiberian ara Providentiae. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography F. Coarelli, in: LTUR 1, 217 Richardson, 64.

Basilica Constantiniana

(195 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Basilica Nova; Basilica of Maxentius). The Basilica Constantiniana (BC) in Rome was begun by Maxentius and completed by Constantine (Aur. Vict. Caes. 40, 26), and is reminiscent of early republican local tradition in the area of the Velia. The base area of 100 × 65 m is dominated by a nave measuring 80 × 25 m. The middle aisle can be entered through five doors from a low entrance hall on the eastern narrow side and it ends in a western apse containing an acrolithic statue of seat…

Domus Aurea

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] As the successor building of the   domus transitoria , which was destroyed in the fire of AD 64, the domus aurea (DA) was still uncompleted at the time of Otho (Suet., Otho 7). Its main aspects were the extensive expropriation and inclusion of public space and the mobilization of all technical and artistic means in shaping an artificial world. After Nero's death the main areas, apart from the Palatine, were systematically returned to public use by the Flavians and Hadrian. The DA included the Palatine, the Oppius, the Caelius and the Velia. The city wall of th…

Aequimelium

(96 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Non-built-up district in Rome, regio VIII, in the south of the Forum Boarium near the northern foothills of the capitol. According to a widespread tradition (Varro, Ling. 5, 157; Liv. 4, 16, 1; Cic. Dom. 101; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 12, 4; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; Quint. Inst. 3, 7, 20), the house of the rich grain merchant Sp. Maelius was demolished here in 432 BC by order of the senate because he was said to have aspired to kingship. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 3 G. Pisani Sartorio, in: LTUR 1, 21.

Campus Martius

(555 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Field of Mars). Tract of land in Rome, shaped like an irregular quadrangle, between the Palazzo Venezia, S. Carlo al Corso, the Ponte Vittorio Emanuele, and the Piazza Cairoli. According to legend, with the foundation of the Republic, the campus Martius (CM) passed from Tarquinian (Dion. Hal. 5,13,2) to public ownership (Liv. 2,5,2; Plut. Poblicola 8,1). The level terrain, not fragmented by private property, was predestined for monumental architecture for public or representative purposes, as in Strabo's (5,3,8). desc…

Caelemontium

(112 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] As regio II of the Augustan division of Rome (CIL XV 7190; for the preceding period, see Varro, Ling. lat. 5, 46), C. corresponds largely with the  Caelius Mons. Its expansion probably coincided with the slopes of the hill: in the west, it bordered  the Palatine, in the east it is questionable whether the Lateran was included. To the south, its approximate boundary is marked by the modern via delle Terme di Caracalla, and to the north, it was succeeded by regio III with the later Colosseum, at about the line of the modern via dei SS. Quattro Coronati. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) B…

Columna

(172 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Antonini Pii see  Columns, monumental Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) [German version] [2] Maenia Monumental columns ( Columns, monumental( erected in 318 BC, during the censorship of the plebeian, C. Maenius, consul in 338 BC, in the context of a major renovation of the  Forum Romanum in Rome (Plin. HN 34,20; Fest. 120L; Isid. Orig. 15,3,11); near the curia Hostilia (Cic. Sest. 8,18 et Schol Bob. ad loc.; 58,124 et Schol. Bob. ad loc.) in the area of the later arch of Septimius Severus. Defaulting debtors were denounced here by their c…

Basilica Aemilia

(292 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Common designation for the basilica on the north-east corner of the  Forum Romanum in Rome; it was first known also as  Basilica Fulvia (Varro, Ling. lat. 6, 4) or Basilica Aemilia et Fulvia (Liv. 40, 51, 5), and from 55 BC on it was called  Basilica Paulli as well (Plut. Caes. 29). The designation of Basilica Aemilia (BA) is a result of the increased number of building projects by the gens Aemilia (78, 54, 34, 14 BC, also in AD 22). The differences in scholarly opinion about this building are rooted in the different views on the building activities of L.  Aem…

Argiletum

(65 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] A main access located in the north-east of the  Forum Romanum, which provided the connection with the Subura. The aedes Iani Gemini is said to have been located ad infimum Argiletum (Liv. 1,19,2). The street fragments between the Forum Iulium, the Curia and the Basilica Aemilia belong to the Augustan layout. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 39 E. Tortorici, in: LTUR 1, 125 f.

Cloaca maxima

(252 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The invention of the cloacae (Str. 5,8; Plin. HN 36,24) is stressed in ancient literature as one of the greatest achievements of civilization; Pliny (HN 36,105) ascribes it to  Tarquinius Priscus, others (Liv. 1,38,6; 1,56,2; Dion. Hal. 3,67,5; 4,44,1) to  Tarquinius Superbus. The edifice designated in Roman literature as Cloaca maxima (CM) (Liv. 1,56,2; Varro, Ling. 5,157) has not been located with certainty, but is generally identified which the largest sewage canal in Rome, preserv…

Basilica Opimia

(124 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] It was erected by the consul A.L. Opimius in 121 BC in Rome simultaneously with the Temple of Concordia, and was torn down possibly when the latter was rebuilt by Tiberius between 7 BC and AD 10. No relics are extant, which complicates the effort to localize the Basilica Opimia (BO) relative to the Temple of Concordia in the vicinity (Varro, Ling. 5, 156). We can therefore hardly determine whether we are dealing with an independent basilica or with only a room that had similar fun…

Basilica Hilariana

(149 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The Basilica Hilariana (BH), located within the modern Villa Celimontana on the Piazza della Navicella in Rome, was first discovered through its mosaic with the caption revealing its name. Close by, the base of a statue of Manius Publicus Hilarus was found, who had erected the building for the members of a cultic society. The statue had been a donation from the priests of the Cybele. Since 1987, an area of 30 × 35 m has been uncovered. Stamped bricks reveal that the BH dates to th…

Arco di Portogallo

(136 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Only known by its popular name, this arch was destroyed in 1662 by Pope Alexander VII in the course of extending the Via del Corso to the south of the Via delle Vite in Rome. Drawings by Dosio (before 1569) and Schenck (before 1705) show a single-arch building decorated on each side with column pairs of verde antico which carry an arabesque acanthus frieze on composite capitals. On its northern side, two extensively restored, possibly Hadrianic reliefs with the apotheosis of a woman (formerly ‘Apotheosis of Sabina’) as well as an adlocutio (both Rome, MC) were attached,…

Apollinare

(46 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Possibly an area set aside in the prata Flaminia, Rome (Liv. 3, 63, 7), for the worship of Apollo, in which 431 BC a temple of Apollo had been erected in circo. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 12 F. Coarelli, in: LTUR 1, 48.

Basilica Sempronia

(71 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Basilica on the north side of the  Forum Romanum in Rome, erected by  Sempronius Gracchus (censor in 169 BC). The house of P. Scipio Africanus and the tabernae veteres previously stood on the basilica's building lots, which were purchased with public funds. Remains from this sequence of buildings may have been uncovered under the  Basilica Iulia. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography I. Iacopi, in: LTUR 1, 187-188 Richardson, 56.

Domus transitoria

(428 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] In the period of his reign before the great fire of AD 64, which was followed by the building of the   domus aurea , Nero combined the horti Maecenatis on the Esquiline ( Esquiliae) with the palatial buildings on the Palatine ( Mons Palatinus) (Suet. Nero 31; Tac. Ann. 15,39). Preserved are a building section of the domus Tiberiana, walls at the sunken peristyle as well as under the aula regia and the cenatio Iovis of the later Flavian palace. The affinity of an elaborate vaulted hall in the terraces of the Hadrianic temple of Venus and Roma by the Vel…

Basilica Argentaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Basilica in the city of Rome, mentioned in Constantine's time (cur. register VIII), also designated as basilica vascularia (CIL 9, 3821) on an inscription; the name probably stems from silver merchants who resided there ( argentarii vascularii; schol. Hor. Epist. 1, 1, 53). The Basilica Argentaria (BA) connected the south-western exedra of the Forum of Trajan to the Forum of Caesar, whose north-western hall formed a continuation of the BA on higher ground level following two sets of stairs. The naves of the BA were orientated along the halls of the Forum of …

Arcus

(2,386 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Arcadii, Honorii et Theodosii This last dedication of a triumphal arch by the Roman city senate between AD 402 and 408 was meant for Arcadius (died in AD 408), Honorius and Theodosius II (born in AD 402) for their victories over the Germans. According to the inscription (CIL 6, 1196), the arch bore statues of the three emperors as well as reliefs of weapons (?). The decoration and tone of the inscription point to a triumphal arch of pagan tradition. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 23 C. Lega, in: LTUR 1, 79-80. [German version] [2] Augusti, 1 (29 BC)…

Basilica Neptuni

(191 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] A building in Rome restored by Hadrian (SHA Hadr. 19,10), possibly the reconstruction of the Poseidonion that had burned down in 80 BC under Titus. The building, now partially covered by the modern Via della Palombella, is located directly south of the Pantheon and west of the Porticus Argonautorum. The main room was a hall of about 45 × 20 m with a round alcove which probably housed a colossal statue. The short sides of the hall are narrower and hold rectangular alcoves, the long…

Esquiliae

(629 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] General term for the hills Cispius and Oppius in  Rome (Varro, Ling. 5,49). Here was the end of the plateau that extended to the Anio; and from it important aqueducts (Anio vetus 270 BC, Aqua Marcia 144 BC, Aqua Claudia and Anio novus AD 52) led into the city. The Anio novus that was incorporated into the Porta Maggiore is particularly impressive. A hasty and exhaustive redevelopment started in 1870/71 caused large-scale exposure and destruction, with which the documentation process could not keep pace; as a result, the considerable number o…
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