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Sura

(441 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen ('calf bone'), recorded for L. Cornelius [I 56] Lentulus S. etc. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 269  Kajanto, Cognomina, 63; 226. [German version] [2] Aemilius S. Author of a work of history In a gloss on Vell. Pat. 1,6,6, an excerpt from a work by a certain Aemilius S. with the title De annis populi Romani is cited as a supplement to Velleius' presentation of the genealogical derivation of the Macedonian royal house. The excerpt contains an account of the successive five empires…

Vitellius

(1,946 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman nomen gentile, in the form Vitellia also a place name, diminutive of Vitulus (thus [1]). The information on the early history of the family in Suet. Vit. 1,1-3 is fictitious. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] The name is first recorded in the late Republican period. Therefore, the Vitellii fratres, who wanted to topple the young Republic with the Aquilii fratres (Aquillius [I 1]) in 509 BC according to annalistic tradition (Liv. 2,4,1-3; Plut. Publicola 3,4), are fictitious; likewise fictitious is the wife of the founder of the Republic L.…

Considius

(531 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian proper name (Schulze, 158, 456; ThlL, Onom. 2, 566f.) attested from 1st cent. BC, so C. [I 1] below is probably unhistorical. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] C., Q. People's tribune 476 BC People's tribune 476 BC. A later tradition that he proposed an agrarian law with his colleague T. Genucius and initiated a process against the consul of 477, T. Menenius, for not helping the Fabii at the Cremera (Liv. 2,52; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 9,27,2) is of doubtful authenticity. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C., Q. Rich senator, 1st half of the 1st cent. BC In 74 BC was judg…

Galus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (orthographic variation of  Gallus?) in the  Sulpicii family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR 253 Id., FCap 149 Kajanto, Cognomina 195.

Caesonius

(293 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, documented from the 1st cent. BC (Schulze 136f.; ThlL, Onom. 54f.). I. Republican Age [German version] [I 1] C., M. Official, 1st cent. AD In 74 BC, judge in the first trial of A. Cluentius Habitus, judge in the  Verres trial in 70 BC; in 69 BC, curule aedile together with Cicero (Cic. Verr. 1,29; MRR 2,132). Possibly praetor in 66 BC, because he was regarded as a candidate for the consulship of 63 BC (Cic. Att. 1,1,1); probably identical with the C. mentioned by Cicero (Att. 12,11). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial Age [German version] [II 1] L.C. Lucillus Macer R…

Caecina

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
Roman family name of Etruscan origin ( Ceicna, Schulze, 75, 285, 567; ThlL, Onom. 15f.), whose bearers belonged to the city aristocracy of Volaterrae (cf. Cic. Fam. 6,6,9), where the family is attested in several branches and partly through richly adorned graves. (CIE 18-24; 36-42 et al.). The lineage appeared in Rome from the 1st cent. BC, but never lost its links with its homeland (cognomen Tuscus in C. [II 9]); villa of the Roman city prefect of AD 414, Caecina Decius Atinatius Albinus, (PLRE 1, 50)…

Salinator

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from sal, ‘salt’) in the family of the Livii (Livius [I 11-13]); legend of its origin in Liv. 29,37,4. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 322.

Diadematus

(18 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen of L. Caecilius [I 26] Metellus D. ( cos. 117 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Falcidius

(65 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Italian personal name (Schulze 272). F., C. (P.?), people's tribune in 41 BC and originator of one of the last known plebiscites ( lex Falcidia), which prescribed that a testator could only leave so many legacies as allowed the heir to remain with a quarter of the inheritance ( quarta Falcidiana) (Dig. 35,2; Gai. Inst. 2,227). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kaser, RPR 2, 756f.

Iuncus

(83 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Widespread Roman cognomen and family name (‘rush’) [1. 729; 2. 334]. [German version] [1] I., M. Praetor 76 BC Praetor in 76 BC see  Iunius [I 22] I., M. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Walde/Hofmann 1 2 Kajanto, Cognomina. [German version] [2] I. Vergilianus Senator, one of the circle of Messalina and Silius Senator, who was one of the circle of Messalina and Silius and knew of their marriage; executed in AD 48. His name was perhaps Iunius I. Vergilianus, PIR2 J 712. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Pictor

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('painter'), inherited in the Fabii family (Fabius [I 31-35]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 321.

Tremulus

(16 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('trembling, tremulous'); Q. Marcius [I 28] T. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Numidicus

(32 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Victor over the Numidians’), victory epithet of Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus N. ( cos. 109 BC); also used to denote origin. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 206.

Acilius

(1,410 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Gentilicium of a plebeian gens, verifiable from the 3rd cent. BC. The most important branches are the Aviolae (imperial era), Balbi and especially the Glabriones, who are documented from the 3rd cent. BC to the end of the 5th cent. AD [1]. In Rome there was a compitum Acilium, on which the first Greek doctor in Rome was settled in 219 (Plin. HN 29,12 [2. 98]), on the Pincio the horti Aciliorum, in the imperial era the most famous gardens of Rome [2. 195 f.; 3. 488 ff.]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] Soldier in Caesar's tenth legion Brave soldier in Ca…

Numitorius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of a Roman gens, documented only since the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] N., L. People's tribune in 471 BC Member of the first college of people's tribunes (that of 471 BC) whose members are all known (Calpurnius Piso fr. 23 HRR = Liv. 2,58,1; Diod. Sic. 11,68,8). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] N., P. People's tribune in 449 BC, grandfather or great-uncle of Verginia According to tradition, N. was the grandfather or (great) uncle of Verginia; together with her betrothed, L. Icilius [1], he sought to protect he…

Hospes

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen in the Iulii and Vettii ( Iulius, Vettius) families in the Imperial Fasti. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR 255.

Optatus

(565 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (“child desired by parents”), very widespread in the Imperial period; equally commonly a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 75; 77; 296 2 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, vol. 1, 1994, 110-111. [German version] [2] Flavius O. Imperial grammar teacher, 4th cent. AD Grammar teacher of the son of the emperor Licinius [II 4]. Allegedly, because of his wife's beauty he had great influence under Constantine [1] the Great and was appointed consul b…

Gracchus

(182 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld)
Roman cognomen probably of Etruscan origin, as a praenomen passed down for the Aequian king G. Cloelius in 458 BC (Liv. 3,25,5). As cognomen prominent in the family of the Sempronii, especially with the people's tribunes Ti. and C.  Sempronius Gracchus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Writer of Lat. tragedies Writer of Latin tragedies ( Thyestes, Atalanta, Peliades), only a short fragment of each is extant (for Inc. inc. fab. 120-124 2R see [4]); Ov. Pont. 4,16,31 names him together with L.  Varius Rufus in a catalogue of contemporary writers. This…

Turullius

(134 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (T., D. according to coin legends; T., P. according to Cass. Dio 51,8,2). Quaestor in 44 BC and one of Caesar's assassins. He then went with L. Tillius [2] Cimber to Bithynia and supported him in equipping a fleet. After the Battle of Philippi in 42 he remained with the still unbeaten fleet, then crossed to the side of M. Antonius [I 9]. To build the latter's fleet he (probably with the rank of praef.) had some of the trees of the Grove of Asclepius on Cos lumbered and in 31 he minted coins for him (RRC 545). After Antonius' defeat in 30 he was deliv…

Perperna

(589 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg)
Nomen gentile of an Etruscan family (or Perpenna on inscriptions ); the family must have received citizenship early: its rise to political power began with P. [2]. P. [3] was the first person with a non-Roman name to become consul, although he lost his citizenship in 126 BC. [German version] [1] P., C. Praetor no later than 91 BC, legate of consul P. Rutilius Lupus in 90 Probably brother of P. [4], praetor no later than 91 BC, was defeated in 90 as legate of consul P. Rutilius Lupus in the Civil War [3] (App. B Civ. 1,179; 183). MRR 2, 20; 29. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] P., M. L…
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