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Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Elisabeth Vavra" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Elisabeth Vavra" )' returned 14 results. Modify search

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By Water

(3,542 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
Archaeological finds document three medieval shipbuilding traditions (D. Ellmers): the tradition of the Anglo-Scandinavian keelboat (e.g. the Viking ships), a miscellaneous group of continental ships …
Date: 2016-08-09

Human Beings and the Environment

(2,516 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal Human settlements of all kinds need both potable and non-potable water. The simplest way to provide water was to collect rainwater in cisterns, draw water from rivers, …
Date: 2016-08-09

By Land

(1,298 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
Two- or four-wheeled carts pulled by oxen brought agricultural products and building materials to the marketplace and rents in kind to the landlord. Besides the body (carriage), the most important ele…
Date: 2016-08-09

Producing Energy – Water and Wind, Wood

(2,332 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
Water and Wind Using the force of the tides, running water, or wind makes it possible to power systems able to serve a wide range of productive activities. Evidence for watermills goes back to antiquity.…
Date: 2016-08-09

Production and Processing – Metal, Textiles, Leather

(4,050 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
Metalworking The technique of damascening was employed for producing weapons as early as the 4th century. Blades forged in this way are characterized by hardness and elasticity. The extremely challengi…
Date: 2016-08-09

Transport and Trade

(92 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
In recent decades, scholars have forced us to revise the image of life in the Early Middle Ages as involving more or less "closed, self-sufficient domestic economies," without the exchange of goods. D…
Date: 2016-08-09

World Order – Measuring and Weighing

(3,071 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
Measuring and Weighing Medieval systems of weights and measures were initially based on everyday experience. People counted by dozens, scores, hundreds, etc., weighed and measured by basic units like the…
Date: 2016-10-18

Armaments Industry – Military Technology

(4,525 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
Defensive Arms Defensive arms include helmets, body armor, and shields. The vita of Saint Lambert (end of the 7th cent.) describes the gear of an early medieval fighter: a byrnie (a shirt of iron ring mail or di…
Date: 2016-08-09

Paper and Printing

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
Chinese paper was imported to Samarkand beginning in the 7th century. Knowledge of the technique of papermaking was transmitted by Chinese paper makers who produced paper in western Turkestan after th…
Date: 2016-08-09

Transport of Goods

(6,079 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
Transport, "the displacement of persons, goods, and news" (W. Hamm), or, "in an economic context, the totality of processes that serve to overcome distance, and facilitate the movement of persons, goo…
Date: 2016-08-09

Extraction of Raw Materials

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
Salt For centuries, salt, an almost indispensable condiment, was the only preservative for meat, fish, vegetables, eggs, dairy products, and fodder. To preserve fish, a fifth of its weight in salt was …
Date: 2016-08-09

Applied Technology

(1,190 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
In a sermon preached in Santa Maria Novella on February 23, 1306, Fra Giordano da Pisa, a Dominican, mentioned a recent invention that made his life infinitely easier: Non è ancora XX anni che si trovò l'arte di fare gli occhial…
Date: 2016-10-18

Nutrition

(5,379 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
Human nutrition is always a function of plant-based and animal resources, as well as their respective quantities and qualities. Following a favorable climatic interval in the High Middle Ages, famines…
Date: 2016-10-18

Agricultural Technology

(654 words)

Author(s): Elisabeth Vavra
The yield of land devoted to cereal crops depends on many factors, including the nature of the soil, climatic conditions, the seeds, and, above all, the available equipment (→agriculture). Advances in…
Date: 2016-08-09