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 Al-ajwiba l-fākhira ʿan al-as’ila l-fājira fī l-radd ʿalā l-milla l-kāfira

(748 words)

Author(s): El Kaisy-Friemuth, Maha
Al-ajwiba l-fākhira‘Superb answers to shameful questions in refutation of the unbelieving religion’ Al-Qarāfī Date: Unknown; before 1285 Original Language: Arabic Description This substantial polemical work, amounting to over 400 pages in printed editions, is called by Brockelmann ‘the greatest apologetic achievement in Islam’ ( GAL S i, p. 665). It is divided into four parts. In the first, al-Qarāfī presents a refutation of an epistle written by an unnamed Christian to provide qur’anic proofs for the integrity of Christian beliefs. He refutes these proofs one by one, calling them s…

 Adillat al-waḥdāniyya fī l-radd ʿalā l-Naṣrāniyya

(462 words)

Author(s): El Kaisy-Friemuth, Maha
‘Proofs of divine oneness in refutation of Christianity’ Al-Qarāfī Date: Before 1238 Original Language: Arabic Description This book was ostensibly presented to the Ayyūbid Sultan al-Malik al-Kāmil (d. 1238), who was known as a patron of education and learning. The prologue explains that, when its author saw scholars competing for the ruler’s favor, he thought of a book on comparative religion, concentrating on dubious forms of monotheism and particularly Christianity. He must also have assumed that a refutatio…

Al-Qarāfī

(544 words)

Author(s): El Kaisy-Friemuth, Maha
Shihāb al-Dīn Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Idrīs al-Ṣanhājī Date of Birth: 1228 Place of Birth: Bahfashīm, Egypt Date of Death: 1285 Place of Death: Cairo Biography Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad al-Qarāfī was born in Upper Egypt, from Berber origins. He received his first education in his native village, then moved to Cairo at the age of 15, acquiring the name al-Qarāfī from the al-Qarāfa district where he lived. He rose to become one of the leading scholars of the Mālikī school in Egypt, though he also specialized in a range of other disciplines, including logic, kalām, tafsīr, medicine, mathematics and …

Pseudo-Ghazālī

(1,453 words)

Author(s): El Kaisy-Friemuth, Maha
Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Ṭūsī, al-Ghazālī Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown; probably Egypt Date of Death: Unknown; before about 1260 Place of Death: Unknown BiographyThis work has been attributed to the great Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī (d. 1111), although his authorship has been disputed since Bouyges expressed reservations in 1959. Watt, Badawī and Jabr followed him, and in 1975 Lazarus-Yafeh presented strong arguments against his authorship. On the other hand, scholars such as Massignon, Chidiac…

 Al-radd al-jamīl li-ilāhiyyat ʿĪsā bi-ṣarīḥ al-Injīl

(789 words)

Author(s): El Kaisy-Friemuth, Maha
Al-radd al-jamīlThe fitting refutation of the divinity of Jesus through what is evident in the Gospel Pseudo-Ghazālī Date: Unknown; before c. 1250 Original Language: Arabic Description Al-radd al-jamīl is a substantial refutation of the divinity of Jesus (63 pages in Chidiac’s edition, and 45 pages in Beaumont and El Kaisy-Freimuth’s edition), based on one of the most thorough analyses of Gospel texts that is known from a Muslim author. The main arguments of the Radd are concerned with the proper meaning of a series of verses from the Gospels, and the contradictions i…