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(1,102 words)

Author(s): El Fadl, Khaled Abou
Act of returning like for like. The Arabic term usually rendered as “retaliation” is qiṣāṣ, although qiṣāṣ also means punishment for a wrongful act (see chastisement and punishment; evil deeds). The Qurʾān mentions qiṣāṣ on several occasions, mostly in the sense of punishment for murder (q.v.) or physical injury and once in the sense of retaliation or reprisal for a wrongful act. In Sūrat al-Baqara ( q 2, “The Cow”) the Qurʾān affirms the pre-Islamic practice of considering certain months (q.v.) in the year to be sanctified (see profane and sacred ) and, therefore, of prohibiting warf…


(2,380 words)

Author(s): El Fadl, Khaled Abou
Opposition to authority. Whether the Qurʾān has anything to say on the subject of rebellion and political violence (q.v.; see also politics and the qurʾān ) is not an issue that can easily be resolved by reference to the text of the Qurʾān alone. Although the Qurʾān does not seem to address the issue explicitly, classical Muslim jurists (see law and the qurʾān ) argued that particular verses in the Qurʾān were intended to guide legal determinations regarding rebellion, or what is known as the problem of al- khurūj ʿalā l-ḥākim, “disobeying and rebelling against the ruler” (see disobedience; …