Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Eder, Walter" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Eder, Walter" )' returned 296 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Wahlen

(1,359 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] Im staatlich-polit. Bereich dient die W. der Bestellung von Organen (Einzelpersonen oder Gremien), die meist auf Zeit von der Mehrheit der Wahlberechtigten mit der Vorbereitung und Durchführung gemeinschaftlicher Aufgaben betraut werden; in monarchischen Systemen hat die polit. W. keine Bed. Über den Bestellungsmodus von Funktionsträgern (für mil. Aufgaben oder in der Rechtssprechung) in frühen Aristokratien liegen keine Nachrichten vor, doch dürfte die Auswahl eher in Konsensver…

Triumph, Triumphzug

(939 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
Ritual der Kriegsbeendigung in Rom, zugleich Einzugsritus des Heeres in die Stadt und höchste erreichbare Ehrung für den Feldherrn. [English version] I. Name und Entstehung Der lat. Begriff triumphus leitet sich vom Festruf io triump(h)e ab, der aus dem griech. Ruf θριάμβε/ thriámbe im Kult des Dionysos (Varro ling. 6,68; Serv. Aen. 10,775) gebildet und ursprünglich eine Bitte um Erscheinen des Gottes war, vergleichbar mit dem 5fachen triumpe im Kultlied der Arvales fratres [8. 38-55; 7. 223]. Die Herkunft des T. aus einem Neujahrs- und Inthron…

Akropolis

(327 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] (ἀκρόπολις, “Hochstadt”), hochgelegener ( ákros = “an der Spitze befindlich”) Teil einer griech. Siedlung; in Griechenland und der Ägäis häufig, in sizilischen und unterital. Kolonien selten mit eigenen Mauern (Befestigungswesen). Die urspr. Bezeichnung dieser Höhensiedlungen als pólis (zu den myk. Wurzeln des Wortes s. Polis I.) lebte in der Bezeichnung der A. von Athen als pólis bis in das 5. Jh. v. Chr. weiter (Thuk. 2,15,6; vgl. Aristoph. Nub. 69; Paus. 1,26,6). Mit der Erweiterung der Siedlungen an den Berghängen seit dem 8. Jh.…

Skytalismos

(114 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] (σκυταλισμός). Die Tötung von 1200 (Diod. 15,57,3-58,4; bei Plut. mor. 814B: 1500) reichen Bürgern in Argos (Herbst 370 v. Chr.) durch Keulenschläge ( skytálē: “Stock”, “Keule”). Anlaß war der Versuch einer oligarchischen Gruppe, mit Hilfe von Söldnern die Macht zu gewinnen, wohl um nach der Niederlage Spartas bei Leuktra (370 v. Chr.) eine Radikalisierung der Demokratie in Argos zu verhindern. Der Versuch wurde verraten (Ain. Takt. 11,7-10), 30 angesehene Bürger wurden hingerichtet; dann folgte in aufgewühlter Atmosphäre der s., dem schließlich auch die…

Latinerkriege

(525 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] werden die mil. Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Rom und dem Latinischen Bund (Latini D.), dem Rom nicht angehörte, oder einzelnen latin. Städten genannt, die vom Beginn der Republik (um 510 v. Chr.) bis zur Auflösung des Bundes durch Rom im J. 338 v. Chr. sporadisch stattfanden. Der erste L. ist als Versuch der Latiner zu sehen, die dominante Stellung Roms in Latium zu beenden. Rom hatte sich v. a. unter den Königen Servius Tullius [I 4] und Tarquinius [12] Superbus zur Vormacht der Latiner entwickelt (vgl. Liv. 1,52) und …

Zwölfstädtebund

(417 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] Der Zusammenschluß von 12 Städten oder Stämmen zu einem Bund war eine alte und verbreitete Erscheinung im Mittelmeerraum und weit darüber hinaus (vgl. die 12 Stämme Israels). Die Zahl 12, die symbolische Bed. hatte, betonte die innere Geschlossenheit und zugleich die Abgrenzung nach außen. Polit./mil. Ziele im Sinne einer Wehrgemeinschaft oder einer Föderation zur Absprache gemeinsamer Politik sind bei keinem der ant. Z. zu erkennen, aber für die schlecht erschließbare frühe Phas…

XI. Late-antique Germanic Kingdoms

(10,179 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin | Eder, Walter
This section includes the states of a number of Germanic peoples that emerged from the early fifth century AD onwards on the territory of the late Roman Empire and on its borders. The Huns (Hunni) were admittedly not a Germanic nation (Germani), but they certainly belong in the survey below as their sudden expansion triggered the so-called migrations of the Germanic peoples. Moreover, the rapid collapse of Hunnish rule after the death of Attila led to a recovery of imperial power only in the Eas…

Tirocinium fori

(151 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] ('period of recruitment for the forum', in distinction to a military one; Tiro [2]) describes both the public presentation in the forum of a young man from the upper classes after his donning the toga virilis ( deductio in forum: Suet. Aug. 26,2; Suet. Tib. 54,1; Suet. Nero 7,2) and the ensuing approximately one year period of education for famous politicians, orators and lawyers (Cic. Lael. 1,1: cf. Cic. Brut. 89,306). The instruction did not happen systematically, but rather by constant accompaniment and observation …

Xiphares

(121 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξιφάρης/ Xiphárēs). Son of Mithridates [6] VI and Stratonice [7], who was killed by his father in 64 BC in revenge for the betrayal of his mother (App. Mithr. 502-505). In 64 Stratonice - without knowing that X. was with his father - had handed over a fortress (Sinoria?) which had been entrusted to her by Mithridates after losing a battle against Pompeius [I 3] in 66 ( Mithridatic Wars C), together with all its treasures to Pompeius [III 1] who promised in return to spare X. if he should fall into Roman hands (Plut. Pompeius 36,6; Cass. Dio 37,7,5). Eder, Walter (Berlin) Biblio…

Q.

(75 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the Roman first name Quintus; in the formula SPQR ( SenatusPopulusQueRomanus) for Que (= postpositive 'and'); in inscriptions frequently for the relative pronoun qui, quae, quod (e.g. Q[ui] I[nfra]S[cripti]S[unt] = 'the undersigned') and for q uaestor . Rare on coins, mostly for Quinquennales, the five-year celebration of an emperor's rule. In MSS, Q stands as the numeral for 500,000. Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography H. Chantraine, s. v. Q, RE 24, 1963, 621-623.

Elections

(1,601 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Within the sphere of state and politics, elections serve to appoint organs (individuals or committees), who were generally entrusted for a set period of time by the majority of qualified voters with the preparation or execution of community tasks; in monarchic systems, political elections are of no importance. There is no information regarding the appointment of functionaries (for military tasks or within the jurisdiction) in early aristocracies, but it is likely that selection wa…

Twelve Cities, League (Etruscan) of

(471 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The federation of 12 cities or tribes into an alliance was an old and widespread occurrence in the Mediterranean region and well beyond (cf. the 12 tribes of Israel). The number 12, which had symbolic significance, emphasized internal closeness and, at the same time, differentiation from the outside. Political/military goals in the sense of a defensive community or a federation for the arrangement of common policies cannot be identified in any of the ancient leagues of twelve citi…

Ataulfus

(228 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Brother-in-law of Alarich ( Alaricus [2]), AD 410-415 king of the West Goths. Probably by order of Alarich active as army commander in Pannonia, A. was summoned by him in 408, reached Italy in 409 and was named comes domesticorum equitum by the usurper  Attalus [11]. After the death of Alarich in 410 he gave up Alarich's African plans and in 412 on the advice of Attalus travelled to Gallia to the usurper  Iovinus. A. soon came into conflict with him and in 413 handed him over to Dardanus, the Gallic praefect of the Emp…

Struggle of the orders

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Modern term for the confrontation between the patricians ( patricii ) and plebeians ( plebs ) at Rome, which began in 494 BC with the foundation of the people's tribunate and ended in 287 BC with the recognition of the decisions of the plebs ( plebiscitum ) as generally binding laws ( lex, leges ) (but s. [1], who puts the end only as late as 217/6). Only the relatively homogenous patriciate should here be understood as an 'order'. The plebs was highly fragmented both socially and economically, and moreover the plebeian clientes of the patricians were …

Potter's oracle

(234 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Prophetic oracle, fragments transmitted in three Greek papyri of the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD (texts in [1. 195-209]; partly translated in [4. 412-415]; on Imperial Period interest in the PO see [3. 194-199]). On the 'Island of the Sun' a potter sent by Thot unfolds, in the presence of a (fictional) king Amenophis (as spokesman of Chmun the god of pottery? [1. 184 f.]), a terrible portrayal of the physical and moral decline of Egypt and its inhabitants [2. 168-170] in a period of foreign ru…

Ramnes

(275 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Ramnes, Titi(ens)es and Luceres (as in Liv. 1,36,2, but in 1,13,8 and Cic. Rep. 2,20,36: R(h)amnenses) are the  Etruscan (Varro Ling. 5,55; see also [1. 218, 581]) names of the three tribus established by Romulus [1] (according to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,14,2 and Gell. NA 15,27: organised by families) which were each divided into 10 curiae and thus formed the primary structuring of the Roman people and army (30×10 equestrians, 30×100 infantry: Varro Ling. 5,89; Liv. 1,13,8). Ennius's derivation of the term R. from Rom…

L.

(55 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the Roman praenomen Lucius. In the Roman numbering system, L denotes the value 50 and probably developed from the bisection of the Greek aspirate Θ (via the form , which found no use as a letter in the early Latin alphabet). Italy, alphabetical scripts; Numerical systems Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Amali

(250 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The A. form the royal dynasty of the East Goths and, with regard to reputation, stand above the royal dynasty of the West Goths, the  Balthi. The family tree of the A., which was developed by Iordanes (died 79) in AD 551 and began with Gaut, indicates godly origin; the eponym of the tribe, Amal, stands only in the fourth place. Iordanes relies upon Cassiodorus, who outlined shortly after the death of the Amal Theoderic the Gr. (526) in his (lost) history of the Goths an origo Gothica, which, in turn, took up an already-existing gentile tradition that had been cultiv…

Ager Romanus

(297 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] As distinct from the ager peregrinus, the 'foreign territory', ager Romanus (AR) was the area of the state of Rome inhabited by Romans (including the city). It consisted of privately owned real estate ( ager privatus) and public lands ( ager publicus ). Parts of the ager publicus could be transformed into ager privatus through the settlement of Roman citizens ( assignatio viritim, 'man by man'; or in closed citizens' colonies, cf. coloniae C) or could be completely divided from the AR to become ag er peregrinus when colonies with their own state areas were establis…

Topos

(215 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(τόπος/ tópos). [German version] [1] Administrative unit Territorial subdivision of a nome ( nomós [2]), attested from the Hellenistic period onwards in Egypt and in its external possessions (Syria, Palestine, southern Asia Minor); also as an administrative unit under the Seleucids and Attalids (Attalus, with stemma), probably with a similar structure but not understood in detail [1. 440]. In Egypt a topos comprised several villages or kômai (Kome B), and therefore formed a unit of intermediate size, which had no pharaonic antecedent, unlike the nome and kome, but was newly form…
▲   Back to top   ▲