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The Persian Wars (c. 500–478/449 BC)

(1,385 words)

Author(s): Eder, W. | Wittke, A.-M.
‘Persian Wars’ is a modern umbrella term denoting the attacks by the Achaemenid kings Darius I (522–486 BC) and Xerxes I (486–465 BC) on Greece in the period between the Ionian Revolt ( c. 500–494 BC) and the middle of the 5th cent. The expansion of Persian rule to the European continent (from 513/12 BC) and the concomitant Achaemenid claim to world dominion had put an end to the hitherto peaceful nature of Greco-Persian contacts. The defence of ‘Greek freedom’ against the ‘barbarians’, which was launched by the Ionian Revolt, …

League formations with hegemonic tendencies in the Greek world, 4th cent. BC

(2,044 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M. | Eder, W.
The hegemonial leagues of the 4th cent. shared two features: orientation towards a leading polis or person ( hegemon) within the League and the foreign policy objective of expanding …