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Tyrannis in the Archaic and Classical Periods

(2,133 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M. | Eder, W.
The maps show the (geographical) spread of the Greek tyrannis in the Archaic (map A) and Late Classical (map B) periods. This division (first made by Plass) is justified both because of the proven absence of tyrannies in the phase between the end of the earlier tyrannis (461 BC, end of Sicilian tyrannis) and the later ones (405 BC, Dionysius I of Syracuse) and because of the different political circumstances leading to their emergence. I. The Archaic tyrannis (mid 7th cent. to early 5th cent.; map A) The archaic tyrannies emerged in a phase of poorly developed statehood as a speci…

The Persian Wars (c. 500–478/449 BC)

(1,385 words)

Author(s): Eder, W. | Wittke, A.-M.
‘Persian Wars’ is a modern umbrella term denoting the attacks by the Achaemenid kings Darius I (522–486 BC) and Xerxes I (486–465 BC) on Greece in the period between the Ionian Revolt ( c. 500–494 BC) and the middle of the 5th cent. The expansion of Persian rule to the European continent (from 513/12 BC) and the concomitant Achaemenid claim to world dominion had put an end to the hitherto peaceful nature of Greco-Persian contacts. The defence of ‘Greek freedom’ against the ‘barbarians’, which was launched by the Ionian Revolt, …

League formations with hegemonic tendencies in the Greek world, 4th cent. BC

(2,044 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M. | Eder, W.
The hegemonial leagues of the 4th cent. shared two features: orientation towards a leading polis or person ( hegemon) within the League and the foreign policy objective of expanding their sphere of action by treaties and/or military means in order to achieve hegemony over neighbouring territories or ideally over Greece and the Aegean region. Some of them were organized as a league of states, i.e. a federation of autonomous poleis led by a state empowered with executive foreign policy rights ( hegemon) and a council of member states ( synhedrion); others were structured as a territor…