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Ergastulum

(438 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Refers to a room in which tied-up slaves had to spend the night; it also refers to a group of bound slaves. With the acquisition of larger numbers of slaves during the Roman expansion in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC, the Roman slave owners were more frequently confronted with the fact that slaves fled or became violent against their owners. The result was an increased occurrence of slaves being tied up, who also had to do their work in that condition ( compediti or vincti). This phenomenon becomes clear both in Cato as well as in Varro without the word ergastulum being used, which,…

Liternius

(83 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] C. L. Fronto. His correct name is C. Aeternius Fronto. Equestrian who was one of the leading officers of Titus in the siege of Jerusalem. He was involved in the sentencing of prisoners. Praefectus Aegypti in AD 78/9; [1. 276; 2. 480, 506]; PIR2 L 287. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Bastianini, in: ZPE 17, 1975, 263-328 2 P. Bureth, Le préfet d'Égypte (30 av.J.-C.-297 ap.J.-C.): État présent de la documentation en 1973, in: ANRW II 10.1, 1988, 472-502.

Vibia

(97 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Wife of L. Arruntius [II 8] Camillus Scribonianus, 1st cent. AD Possibly a daughter of C. Vibius [II 9] Marsus, wife of L. Arruntius [II 8] Camillus Scribonianus; when the latter, as governor of Dalmatia rebelled unsuccessfully against Claudius [III 1] in AD 42, he died in her arms while fleeing. She was banished but in 52 was again prosecuted, together with her son (cf. Tac. Ann. 12,52,1; Plin. Epist. 3,16,7-9). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Raepsaet-Charlier, 621 f., Nr. 798. [German version] [2] See Matidia [2] See Matidia [2] (the Younger). …

Caesonius

(293 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, documented from the 1st cent. BC (Schulze 136f.; ThlL, Onom. 54f.). I. Republican Age [German version] [I 1] C., M. Official, 1st cent. AD In 74 BC, judge in the first trial of A. Cluentius Habitus, judge in the  Verres trial in 70 BC; in 69 BC, curule aedile together with Cicero (Cic. Verr. 1,29; MRR 2,132). Possibly praetor in 66 BC, because he was regarded as a candidate for the consulship of 63 BC (Cic. Att. 1,1,1); probably identical with the C. mentioned by Cicero (Att. 12,11). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial Age [German version] [II 1] L.C. Lucillus Macer R…

Iuncus

(83 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Widespread Roman cognomen and family name (‘rush’) [1. 729; 2. 334]. [German version] [1] I., M. Praetor 76 BC Praetor in 76 BC see  Iunius [I 22] I., M. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Walde/Hofmann 1 2 Kajanto, Cognomina. [German version] [2] I. Vergilianus Senator, one of the circle of Messalina and Silius Senator, who was one of the circle of Messalina and Silius and knew of their marriage; executed in AD 48. His name was perhaps Iunius I. Vergilianus, PIR2 J 712. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Claudia

(907 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A daughter of Ap. Claudius Caecus, 3rd cent. BC A daughter of Ap. Claudius Caecus. Her wish, which she loudly expressed in a crowd, that her brother P. Claudius Pulcher ( cos. 249 BC) should live and lose another battle at sea so that the mob would be decreased, was heavily fined (Ateius Capito in Gell. NA 10,6; Liv. per. 19; Suet. Tib. 2,3). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Women and Politics in Ancient Rome, 1992, 19-20. [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Ap. Claudius Pulcher, wife of Ti. Gracchus Daughter of Ap. Claudius Pul…

Albinius

(163 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium. [German version] [1] see Albanius A. see  Albanius, C. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] L. (1st half 4th cent BC) A., L., at the invasion of the Gauls in 387 BC brought the Vestals safely to Caere (Liv. 5,40,9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] M. (L. ?) consular tribune 379 BC. A., M. (L. ?) consular tribune 379 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [4] Paterculus, L., tribune of the people 494 and 493 BC A. Paterculus, L., one of the first tribunes of the people 494 and 493 BC. He is not named in all sou…

Appius

(457 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Latin family name (cf. [1]) and Latin praenomen (abbreviated Ap., in the Imperial period also App.), whose ancient derivation from Sabinian (Lib. praen. 6) is not undisputed; mainly documented for the patrician families of the Claudii Pulchri, rarer among the Claudii Nerones, etc. First documented name-bearer was Ap. Claudius Sabinus Inregillensis (Attus Clausus), the founder of the gens Claudia in Rome about 500 BC (Liv. 2,16,4). Because of its almost exclusive occurrence among the gens Cl…

Ennius

(2,729 words)

Author(s): Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] E., Q. Latin writer of the pre-classical period Latin writer of the pre-classical period. E. (239-169 BC) is the most important and versatile Latin writer (Fronto p. 134,1 H.2) of the pre-classical period. Although ‘a foreigner in Rome’ [21] (sociologically a dependent poet, poeta cliens [33]) and representative of Hellenistic education, he contributed to shaping the Roman national consciousness through sentences such as moribus antiquis res stat Romana virisque (Ann. 500 V.; see Cic. Rep. 5,1). Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) [German version] A. Life Most of the …

Paccius

(264 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] [1] C.P. Africanus Senator Senator. In probably 67 he became a suffect consul. In 70 he was expelled from the Senate for being found guilty of informing on the Scribonii brothers under Nero [1] (Tac. Hist. 4,41,3). But he must have been readmitted soon after, because in 77/8 he served as proconsul of Africa; there are numerous testimonies to his activities there. PIR2 P 14. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Thomasson, Fasti Africani, 44. [German version] [2] P. Antiochus Pharmacologist in Rome, 1st cent. Pharmacologist, active in Rome, who had great therapeutic…

Cocceius

(616 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. Auctus, L. Architect, late 1st cent. BC Freedman of C. Postumius (Pollio). Architect (CIL X 1614), who constructed the road tunnels between Lake Avernus and Cumae and between Puteoli and Naples for M. Vipsanius  Agrippa [1] (Str. 5,5,245). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography H. Benario, C. and Cumae, in: CB 35, 1959, 40-41 D. Kienast, Augustus, 1982, 347 fn. 148, 348 fn. 153. [German version] [2] C.C. Balbus Cos. suff. 39 BC Cos. suff. in 39 BC (InscrIt 13,1, p. 282; 291; 278; 135; 506; MRR 2, 386). As a supporter of M.  Antonius he was …

Murena

(128 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman third name or nickname (‘Moray’) in the Licinii family (Licinius [I 32-35]) which passed by adoption from there to A. Terentius Varro M. and his son of the same name ( cos. 23 BC). It was adopted by more families in the Imperial era. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] People's tribune in 97 AD The tribunus plebis, who in AD 97 made the right of speech possible for Fabricius [II 2] Veiento in a dispute in the Senate (Plin. Ep. 9,13,19); probably he and Q. Roscius Coelius Murena ... Pompeius Falco are one and the same person. PIR2 M 746. It is, however, surprising why Pli…

Lysanias

(197 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Λυσανίας; Lysanías). [German version] [1] Tetrarch of Abilene, 1st half of the 1st cent. AD Tetrarch of Abilene who was introduced by the evangelist Luke (Lc 3:1) for the purpose of synchronization, in the 15th year of the emperor Tiberius = October 27 - September AD 28. He must have died before 37, since Caligula gave his territory to Herodes [8] Agrippa I at that time. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography L. Boffo, Iscrizioni Greche e Latine per lo studio della Bibbia, 1994, 171ff. PIR2 L 467. [German version] [2] Greek Grammarian, 3rd cent. BC Greek grammarian from Cyrene who lived in …

Papius

(506 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic family name, most common among the Samnites, also encountered as an Oscan praenomen. The author of the lex Papia Poppaea in AD 9 was P. [II 1]. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P. People's tribune c. 80 BC People's tribune, probably before 80 BC and therefore not identical with P. [I 2]; author of a lex Papia, stipulating the supplementation of the number of Vestal virgins by means of election by lot (Gell. NA 1,12,10-12). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] P., C. People's tribune in 65 BC, author of a lex Papia People's tribune in 65 BC, author of a lex Papia

Pedanius

(1,688 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Pedanius Dioscorides Author on medicines, 1st cent. AD (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης; Pedánios Dioskourídēs). [German version] I. Life The author of the treatise Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς/ Perì hýlēs iatrikês ( De materia medica, 'On Materia Medica') hailed from Anazarbus (Cilicia) and dates to the 1st. cent. AD: in his preface (§ 4), he refers to a certain Laikanios Bassos, whom he describes as krátistos (‘the highest’), now assumed to be C. Laecanius Bassus, senator and consul of AD 64. Pliny makes no reference to this work in his Naturalis historia (completed in AD 77 acc…

Lucceius

(615 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian family name, expanded from Lucius. Many bearers of the name are known [1. 359; 426], among them also prominent figures from the 1st cent. BC onwards. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., Cn. Visited M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus often in Puteoli 44 BC Visited M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus often in Puteoli during the summer of 44 BC (Cic. Att. 16,5,3); probably came from an aristocratic family in Cumae (CIL X 3685-3690). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., L. Senator with business interests, intimate of Pompey Senator with business interests in Italy and Cilicia (Cic…

Iavolenus

(302 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] C.I. Calvinus Geminius Kapito Cornelius Pollio Squilla Q. Vulkacius Scuppidius Verus Senator under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, cos. suff. Senator, who had a prolonged praetorian career under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, ending as governor in Lusitania, proconsul in Baetica and consul suffectus. ILS 1060; PIR2 J 13. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Octavius Tidius Tossianus L.I. Priscus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, successor of Caelius Sabinus ( Arulenus [1]) and predecessor of  Fulvius [II 2] Aburnius Valens as head of th…

Cos(s)inius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic proper name, attested with and without doubling of the s (Schulze, 159; ThlL, Onom. 2.667f.). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., L. Praetor 73 BC, fell in battle against Spartacus Praetor (?) in 73 BC, fell in battle against Spartacus (Sall. Hist. 3,94; Plut. Crassus 9,4f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography F. Ryan, The Praetorship of Varinius, Cossinius and Glaber, in: Klio 78, 1996, 376. [German version] [I 2] C., L. Dialogue partner in Varro and Cicero Speaks as dialogue partner in Varro (Rust. 2) on cattle breeding, probably identical to a…

Demostratus

(143 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Δημόστρατος; Dēmóstratos). [German version] [1] Athenian, demagogue, 415 BC Athenian, deme uncertain, from the clan of the  Buzygae (Aristoph. Lys. 397 with schol.; Aristid. 3,51). ‘Demagogue’ (Plut. Nic. 12,6) who in 415 BC proposed that the strategoi of the Sicilian expedition be given full powers as   autokrátores (Plut. Alc. 18,3; Aristoph. Lys. 391; unnamed in Thuc. 6,25,1) and also that Zacynthian hoplites be recruited (Aristoph. Lys. 393 with schol.). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Traill, PAA 319245; Develin, 149; Davies, 3276(B)(4). [German version] [2] D.…

Velius

(546 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] [1] V. Cerialis Amicus of Pliny the Younger (Plin. Ep. 4,21). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] D. V. Fidus Senatorial cos. suff. in November/December AD 148, together with M. Calpurnius [II 16] Longus (AE 1996, 1384 = [1]); governor of the province of Syria Palaestina in 150 (PSI IX 1026 = [2]). Member of the Pontifices in 155 (CIL VI 2120). IGLS VI 2777 is probably his burial inscription [3]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 J. D'Arms, Memory, Money, and Status at Misenum: Three New Inscriptions from the Collegium of the Augustales, in: JRS 90, 2000, 126-144 2…
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