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Marcius

(5,160 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Et al.
Old Roman nomen gentile, derived from the prename Marcus. Tradition knows of a patrician branch with the (mythical) king Ancus M. [I 3] and Cn. M. Coriolanus as its most important members. The younger members of the family (from the 3rd cent.) were plebeian without a link to the patrician Marcii being evident. Important families included the Rutili, later also the Censorini, Tremuli, Reges and Rallae. In the Late Republic the family claimed descent from the kings Ancus M. and Numa Pompilius (therefore the cognomen Rex, see M. [I 5]; RRC 346; 425; Suet. Iul. 6,1; [4. 154]) as wel…

Peducaeus

(502 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family which does not appear until the 1st century BC; in fact a nickname ('flat-footed'). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] People's tribune in 114 BC Elected people's tribune for the year 113 BC. Straight after assuming office in December 114, he carried through a law which led to new proceedings for 'fornication' against the Vestals Licinia [4] and Marcia [3] under the chairmanship of C. Cassius [I 17] Longinus Ravilla (Cic. Nat. D. 3,74; Ascon. 45f. C.). MRR 1, 536. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] P., Sex. Praetor in 77 BC, pr…

Scribonianus

(63 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] S. Camerinus belonged to the family of the Licinii, probably the son of Licinius [II 10] Crassus, who was cos. in AD 64. S. was apparently killed along with his parents under Nero. Under Vitellius, a slave by the name of Geta claimed to be S. but was exposed and executed (Tac. Hist. 2,72). PIR2 L 241. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Lucusta

(73 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Dealer in poisons, probably from Gaul, who, according to tradition, supplied the poison to Agrippina [3] to kill Claudius in AD 54, and in the following year to Nero to eliminate Britannicus. Although L. had previously been sentenced for murder by poisoning, she was now set free. In 68 Nero also used poison prepared by her for his suicide. Galba had her executed. PIR2 L 414. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Saturius Firmus

(54 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Senator, cos. suff. in 148 AD (FO2 51). His father (or grandfather) of the same name, probably mentioned in Plin. Ep. 4,15,3, was married to a daughter of the senator Asinius Rufus (cf. [1]) and this eased his rise to senatorial status. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Syme, RP 7, 604.

Syllaeus

(233 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Nabataean (Nabataei), leading office-bearer of the Nabataean king Obodas II: epitropos [1] (in Jos. BI 1,487; Str. 16,4,23 f.); dioiketes (Nicolaus of Damascus, Excerpta Historica 3,1,1 Boissevain). When Aelius [II 11] Gallus, the prefect of Egypt, went into battle against southern Arabia in 24 BC, S. advised on the route the army took. Because it was a failure, Strabo accuses him (16,4,23 f.) of treason. S. played a substantial role in the competition between the local rulers in the area of Syria, Judaea and Nabataea;…

Orfidius

(88 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C.? O. Benignus Military officer in the 1st cent. AD Legate of the newly established legio I Adiutrix; he fell at the battle of Bedriacum in AD 69. PIR2 O 136. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. O. Senecio Governor of Dacia superior under Antoninus [1] Pius Praetorian governor of Dacia superior under Antoninus [1] Pius. In AD 148, he rose to the position of suffect consul, probably while still in the province [1. 57f.]. PIR2 O 137. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Piso, FPD.

Ergastulum

(438 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Refers to a room in which tied-up slaves had to spend the night; it also refers to a group of bound slaves. With the acquisition of larger numbers of slaves during the Roman expansion in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC, the Roman slave owners were more frequently confronted with the fact that slaves fled or became violent against their owners. The result was an increased occurrence of slaves being tied up, who also had to do their work in that condition ( compediti or vincti). This phenomenon becomes clear both in Cato as well as in Varro without the word ergastulum being used, which,…

Liternius

(83 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] C. L. Fronto. His correct name is C. Aeternius Fronto. Equestrian who was one of the leading officers of Titus in the siege of Jerusalem. He was involved in the sentencing of prisoners. Praefectus Aegypti in AD 78/9; [1. 276; 2. 480, 506]; PIR2 L 287. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Bastianini, in: ZPE 17, 1975, 263-328 2 P. Bureth, Le préfet d'Égypte (30 av.J.-C.-297 ap.J.-C.): État présent de la documentation en 1973, in: ANRW II 10.1, 1988, 472-502.

Allius

(171 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gentilicium. [German version] [1] M., friend of Catullus (1st cent. BC) M., friend of Catullus (Carm. 68 is dedicated to him). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Bala, C., mint master in 92 BC Bala, C., mint master in 92 BC (RRC 336). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Fuscianus, cos. suff. (around 160 AD) Fuscianus, C., praetorian governor of Arabia around AD 160 and cos. suff. (PIR2 A 544) [1]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [4] Fuscus, governor (end of 2nd cent. AD) Fuscus, C., son of no. 3, consular governor of Germania Inferior, p…

Vibia

(97 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Wife of L. Arruntius [II 8] Camillus Scribonianus, 1st cent. AD Possibly a daughter of C. Vibius [II 9] Marsus, wife of L. Arruntius [II 8] Camillus Scribonianus; when the latter, as governor of Dalmatia rebelled unsuccessfully against Claudius [III 1] in AD 42, he died in her arms while fleeing. She was banished but in 52 was again prosecuted, together with her son (cf. Tac. Ann. 12,52,1; Plin. Epist. 3,16,7-9). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Raepsaet-Charlier, 621 f., Nr. 798. [German version] [2] See Matidia [2] See Matidia [2] (the Younger). …

Arulenus

(141 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Caelius Sabinus, Cn. Suffect consul in AD 69. Very influential jurist at the time of Vespasian (Dig. 1,2,2,53); successor to  Cassius Longinus as head of the Sabinian law school, he wrote a commentary Ad edictum aedilium curulium. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Lawyers and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, 1989, 142ff. 2 PIR I2 1194. [German version] [2] Iunius A. Rusticus, Q. Cos. suff. 92 AD In AD 66 as tribunus plebis he wanted to intercede in the Senate on behalf of Thrasea (Tac. Ann. 16,26,4f.); 70 praetor, 92 suffect consul (AE 1…

Calpurnia

(346 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Wife of Caesar Daughter of L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus (Suet. Iul. 21). On the Ides of March AD 44, she pleaded urgently with her husband Caesar to stay away from the Senate session (Suet. Iul. 81,3; Plut. Caes. 63,8-12; Cass. Dio 44,17,1; Val. Max. 1,7,2; Vell. Pat. 2,57,2). Caesar had married the 18-year-old for political reasons in 59 BC (Plut. Caes. 14,8; Pomp. 47,10; App. B Civ. 2,51; Cass. Dio 38,9,1, [1. 75 A.46]). Their marriage remained childless [2. 466]. After Caesar's death, C. transferred his assets to Mark Antony (Plut. Ant. 15; App. B Civ. 2,524). Stroth…

Caecilius

(6,633 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (probably derived from Caeculus, older form is Caicilios, Greek Καικίλιος, Κεκίλιος [ Kaikílios, Kekílios]; ThlL, Onom. 12-14), whose existence is documented since the 5th cent. (since C. [I 1]), but who only gained importance in the 2nd cent.; their most famous branch were the C. Metelli (I 10-32). A later explanation related the name back to Caeculus, the legendary founder of Praeneste, or Caecas, a companion of Aeneas (Fest. p. 38). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., Q. Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC …

Numonius

(173 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Roman family name. We know of a C.N. Vala, who as IIIvir monetalis in 41 BC minted aurei and denarii (RRC 514; see under N. [1]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] N. Vala Addressee of Hor. epist. 1, 15 Horace wrote to him around 20 BC (Hor. Epist. 1,15). Possibly identifiable with the C.N. Vala, who in 41 AD is documented as mint master (RRC 1, 522f. No. 514). PIR2 N 243; 244. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C.N.Vala Legate of Q. Varus in Germania Legate of Quinctilius Varus on the latter's last campaign through Germania; N. fled with the cavalry in…

Domitia

(1,068 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Aunt of Nero Daughter of Domitius [II 2]; sister of D. [5]; Nero's aunt on his father's side. Possibly she was frequently married [1. 162f., 166], but her only husband known to us by name is C. Sallustius Passienus Crispus, cos. II 44, who left her probably in AD 41 to marry Agrippina the Younger, which was the cause of the deepest aversion between the two women. Thus in AD 55 she was involved in an intrigue against Agrippina. Shortly after Agrippina's death in AD 59, D. also died, supposedly poisoned by Nero, who appropriated her immense fortune [1. 159ff.; 2]. PIR2 D 171. Eck…

Faustina

(799 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Annia Galeria Aurelia F. Daughter of Marcus Arelius, born after AD 151 Daughter of Marcus Aurelius and F. [3]. Born probably AD 151 [1. 108, 247; 2. 161], married to Cn. Claudius [II 62] Severus, cos. II 173. Her son was Ti. Claudius [II 65] Severus Proculus, cos. ord. 200. PIR2 C 1028. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 21988 2 W. Ameling, Die Kinder des Marc Aurel..., in: ZPE 90, 1992, 147-166. [German version] [2] Annia Galeria F. Wife of Antoninus Pius Wife of Emperor  Antoninus [1] Pius. Daughter of  Annius [II 15] Verus, cos. III A…

Cluvius

(336 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic family name (Schulze, 483), attested in Campania from the 3rd cent., in Rome for plebeians from the 2nd cent. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., C. Praetor c. 104 BC Praetor and probably proconsul of Macedonia or Asia around 104 BC (MRR 1,560). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C. (Clovius), C. Mint master 45 BC Mint master in 45 BC (RRC 476) and at the same time Caesar's prefect, probably responsible for land allotments in Gallia Cisalpina (Cic. Fam. 13,7; MRR 2,313); further identification, especially with the C.C. mentioned in the so-called

Blaesus

(87 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
Common cognomen (‘the lisper’), e.g. in the gens Gellia, Naevia, Iunia, Pedia, Sallustia, Sentia, Sempronia. [German version] [1] Freund of Atedius Melior, Senator, died 90 AD Friend of Atedius Melior, probably a senator; died before AD 90 (Stat. 2,1,189ff.). A link with P. Sallustius Lucullus remains uncertain, cf. [1. 12f., 334ff.]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Scheid, Collège. [German version] [2] Roman jurist Jurist, probably a student with  Labeo of Trebatius (cf. Dig. 33,2,31). Identification with Q. Iunius B. (cos. suff. AD 10) is questionable. Eder, Walter (Ber…

Fronto

(1,010 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman cognomen (‘wide-browed’), first attested in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Rich patron of Martial A rich patron of Martial (1,55,2). He could be identical with Ti. Catius Caesius F., cos. suff. in AD 96. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Praetorian governor of Galatia under Tiberius Praetorian governor of Galatia under Tiberius, perhaps AD 27-31. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography S. Mitchell, in: Chiron 16, 1986, 23ff. PIR2 F 485). [German version] [3] [...]us F. Cos. suff. AD 165 Cos. suff. in AD 165, (Vidman, FO2 52; there a…
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