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Architecture

(2,822 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
Pre-Romanesque Architecture. The archetypes of central-plan buildings (Basilica of St. Vitale, 547) and basilicas (Basilica of St. Apollinare in Classe, 549) grew out of the Ravennan architecture of the…
Date: 2016-08-19

Sculpture and the Plastic Arts

(3,580 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
Pre-Romanesque Period Monumental crosses bear witness to large-scale insular sculpture; from the Merovingian period it is primarily sarcophagi (Jouarre etc.) that have been preserved. These works, toget…
Date: 2016-08-09

Gothic Art

(1,542 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
The term "Gothic" was coined by the biographer of Italian painters and artists, Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574). He ascribed the decline of ancient art in the Migration period to the Goths, who, for a brie…
Date: 2016-08-09

Illuminated Manuscripts and their Special Role

(3,756 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
Manuscript illumination is essentially the only part of medieval art to be preserved undisturbed, provided that the work retained its binding (→books and libraries). The history of illuminations also …
Date: 2016-10-18

Artists' Inscriptions

(928 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
Artists' inscriptions were by no means rare in the Middle Ages. They appear in a monastic context, scattered throughout the entire millennium. Here, the problem of whether fecit stands only for fecit fieri is often not particularly …
Date: 2016-10-18

The Perspective of Image and Text to Past and Present

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
Authority and the Restoration of Texts and Images In the Middles Ages, texts generally acquired their authority from their age. Once written down, they lived on in a culture that continually augmented and var…
Date: 2016-08-09

Aesthetic Theories in the Middle Ages and Medieval Art

(1,592 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
As Umberto Eco wrote in the conclusion to the English edition of his book Art and Beauty in the Middle Ages, across a thousand years of the Middle Ages works of fine art and the philosophy of beauty were separated by a k…
Date: 2016-08-09

Monumental Painting: Mosaics, Mural Painting, Stained Glass, Ceiling Painting, and Tapestry

(2,422 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
One must imagine interior walls as being colored throughout the entire Middle Ages. As long as the walls were opened only sparingly by windows, large surfaces were available, which were covered with m…
Date: 2016-08-09

Art in Practice – The Middle Ages and the Role of Art and Artists in Christianity

(2,868 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
While a genealogy of music was developed in the Old Testament from Jubal and Tubal-cain, the children of Cain, down to Miriam the sister of Moses, figurative art had only a minor role, owing to the pr…
Date: 2016-10-18

Renaissance and Renaissances

(765 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
Antiquity was present to medieval artists through surviving buildings and literary reports. Returns to antiquity were concentrated in specific periods: the raids of Charlemagne, who brought spolia from Ravenna to Aachen, were …
Date: 2016-08-09

Master Builder and Universal Genius

(1,379 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
The advantage which medieval masters had over their fellow men was reflected in the attribution of the Hildesheim Cathedral doors to the saintly Bishop Bernward. Bernward had been to Rome and had work…
Date: 2016-08-09

Categories of Fine Art

(892 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
From at least as early as the civilizations of the Near East and Egypt, art as religious cult or sovereign representation requires a house: temple and palace, and in the Middle Ages church and castle …
Date: 2016-08-09

Pre-Romanesque Art

(1,868 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
Romanesque art was the first to be defined on the basis of its architecture; many pre-Romanesque stylistic periods left behind virtually no buildings. After the 6th century in Ravenna, the first conce…
Date: 2016-08-09

The Artist

(919 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
In the areas of tension where art had to prove itself, its anchoring in craft was its greatest triumph (→craftsmen). This was as true for artists as it was for bell-founders: an entire cathedral chapt…
Date: 2016-08-09

The Artist's Living Environment in the Middle Ages

(781 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
One would certainly like, with the young Goethe, to praise an architect like Erwin von Steinbach as the creator of Strasbourg Cathedral, and hence as an artist. However, in scholarship a view that was…
Date: 2016-08-09

Periods and Contexts of Fine Art

(1,088 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
Topography It is customary to discuss art in the Western Middle Ages in terms of broad regions, and by ever smaller units as it develops (→constitutive historical events and regions). The essential str…
Date: 2016-08-09

Artistic Handicraft

(2,798 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
In addition to libraries with their manuscript illuminations and deluxe bindings, it is church treasuries that transmit, throughout Western Europe, the most vivid glimpses of medieval artistic creatio…
Date: 2016-08-09

The Appearance and Aesthetic Ideal of Medieval Art

(2,462 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
Contemporary State of Preservation and Original Effect Musicologists are careful to present the aesthetic effect of their subject concretely, without becoming entangled in the question of how to read signs w…
Date: 2016-10-18

Romanesque Art

(982 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
Medieval art was understood as "Gothic," until the Norman scholar Charles de Gerville spoke of "art roman" in a letter of 1818, and the Englishman William Gunn spoke of "romanesque" in 1819. At the co…
Date: 2016-08-09

Panel Painting

(1,610 words)

Author(s): Eberhard König
Portrait-style icons constitute the beginning of Christian panel painting. The major types derive from the East. In their mythical origin, images of Christ are associated with Acheiropoieta, or images created by angels, or the…
Date: 2016-08-09