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(1,088 words)

Author(s): Dávid, Géza
Buda (Ott. Budīn or Budūn), situated on the right bank of the Danube River, was one of the capital cities of medieval Hungary and the centre of an Ottoman vilayet ( vilāyet, province) from 948/1541 to 1097/1686. It has been part of Budapest, capital of today’s Hungary, since 1873. The area of the later town was inhabited in ancient times and during the Roman period. It suffered from the Mongol invasion (1241–2), but recovered in the latter part of the reign of Béla IV (1235–70), who erected a stone castle on the heights above…
Date: 2018-07-12


(763 words)

Author(s): Dávid, Géza
Eger (Ott. Eğri, Eğre) is a regionally important town located in the north of present-day Hungary. In 1005–99/1596–87, it was the centre of an Ottoman vilayet ( vilāyet, province), and both before and after this period, it was the seat of a bishop (after 1804 an archbishop). Eger was founded on the banks of a small river of the same name, at a point where plain and hills meet. The town was damaged during the Mongol invasion in 1241 but restored by Béla IV (r. 1235–70). Its ecclesiastical buildings were partly renovated in Renaissance style at the end of the fifteenth century. When the Ottomans m…
Date: 2018-07-12

Ali Paşa, Hadım

(512 words)

Author(s): Dávid, Géza
Hadım Ali Paşa (Khādım ʿAlī Pasha, d. 965/1557) was an Ottoman statesman and military leader of Albanian or Bosnian origin who served in the harem before becoming a sancakbeyi (sancaqbeği) in the eastern regions of the Empire. Prior to his appointment as governor of Anatolia (5 Şevval (Shawwāl) 951/20 December 1544), he held the post of beylerbeyi (beğlerbeği) of Diyarbakır (Diyārbakır). During the campaign of 955/1548 against the Ṣafavids, he failed to stop the pillaging of the soldiery and was removed from his governorship. In Muharrem (Muḥarram) 95…
Date: 2019-01-10


(1,019 words)

Author(s): Dávid, Géza
Esztergom (Turk. Estergon, Ostorgon) is a town in northern Hungary, which is located on the right bank of the Danube River, approximately 61 kilometres (38 miles) northwest of Budapest. It was founded by the Hungarian ruler Géza (r. before 972–97) on a site that had been inhabited since ancient times, and it served as one of the capital cities of medieval Hungary. Esztergom suffered during the Mongol invasion of Hungary, but the Mongols failed to capture its castle. Nevertheless, the centre of p…
Date: 2018-07-12


(445 words)

Author(s): Dávid, Géza
Arad (Ottoman Turkish, Arād or Arāṭ), is a town in the county of Arad, in Hungary, originally situated east of its modern location. In the tenth/sixteenth and eleventh/seventeenth centuries, it was an Ottoman administrative centre within the vilayets (vilāyet) of Buda and Temesvár (Timişoara) and, from 1920, a part of Rumania with a considerable Hungarian minority. First mentioned as a fortified place in the sixth/twelfth century, Arad was conquered by Sokollu Mehmed Paşa (Ṣoqollu Meḥmed Pasha), beylerbeyi (beğlerbeği) of Rumelia, in 958/1551. Until the conquest of Gyula…
Date: 2019-01-08