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(181 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, a native state of India, in Gud̲j̲arāt, consisting of four detached portions within the Bombay Presidency; the ruler is a Marāṭhā, bearing the family name of Gaikwār. Area: 8,099 sq. m.; pop. (1901): 1,952,692, of whom 165,014 were Muḥammadans; revenue: Rs. 1,64,86,000. The city of Barōda, on the Vis̲h̲wāmitri river — pop. (1901): 103,790 — was of Muḥammadan foundation, as shewn by its walls. The Gaikwārs always had in their service Muḥammadan Sardārs and Arab and Rohilla mercenaries, whose descendants are supported by the state to this day. The Gaikwārs have also kept ¶ up the custom …


(153 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, a town and district of India, in the N. W. Frontier Province. Area of district 1,670 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 226,776, of whom nearly 90% are Muḥammadans. It consists of a basin, watered by the Kurram and Tochi rivers, and entirely shut in by mountains. More than half of the inhabitants are Paṭhāns, speaking Pas̲h̲tu, the chief tribes being Marwats, Bannūčīs, and Wazīrs. The crops are wheat, gram, maize, and millet, grown by irrigation from petty canals. Except for frontier raids, the district has …


(714 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
(Dacca) (from the ḍhāk tree, Butea frondosa), historic capital of Eastern Bengal, giving its name to a district; area, 2,781 sq.m.; pop. (1911), 2,960,402, (having increased by 12% during the previous decade), of whom more than three-fifths are Musalmans. It contains two older capitals, now mere ruins: Bikrampur, the traditional centre of two Hindu dynasties and still the home of many high-caste Hindus; and Sōnārgāōn, the residence of Musalman governors and kings for three centuries after the conquest by ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn in 1296 a. d. Situated at the junction of the Ganges and Brah…


(164 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
or Čattagram, a town and district of India, in Eastern lien gal, at the head of the Bay of Bengal, extending south along the coast towards Arakan. Area of district, 2,429 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 1,353,250, of whom 72% are Muḥammadans. The town, on the right bank of the Karnaphuli river, 12 m. from the sea, is the second seaport in Bengal after Calcutta, and its importance has been increased by the opening of railway communication with Assam. In 1905 it was created the subordinate capital of the new …


(91 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, or Ḏj̲olāha, the name of the Musalman weavers, who form almost an occupational caste throughout Northern India, though they have also found their way to the cotton mills of Bombay. At the Census of 1901, their number was three millions, or nearly 3% of the total Musalman population, of whom just half were in the United Provinces. (J. S. Cotton) Bibliography Risley, Tribes and Castes of Bengal, i. 348 sq. (Calcutta, 1892) W. Crooke, Tribes and Castes of the N. W. P. and Oudh, iii. 69 sq. (Calcutta, 1896).


(134 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, town in Afg̲h̲ānistān, near the Kābul river, almost half-way on the main route from Pēs̲h̲āwar to Kabul, headquarters of a large district of the same name: permanent pop. estimated at only 2,000, but this number increases ten-fold during the winter, when the Amīr often takes up his residence here in a fine palace built in 1892. It takes its name from the Mug̲h̲al emperor Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Akbar, who is said to have founded it in 1570 a. d. It is famous in history for the defence of the garrison under General Sale during the winter of 1841—1842, when the rest of the British army had been destroyed. (J. …


(54 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, the name adopted by European geographers for the eastern coast of India. It is a corruption of Chōṛamaṇḍala, “the kingdom of Chora or Chola”, which is found in Tamil inscriptions of the xith cent, at Tand̲j̲ore. The early Muḥammadan name for the same coast is Maʾbar [q. v.] (J. S. Cotton)


(137 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, district in Eastern Bengal, India: area, 3,946 sq. m.; pop. (1911), 1,687,863, of whom about one half are Muḥammadans. At the beginning of the 15th cent. a. d., Rād̲j̲ā Kāns, a Hindu landowner of Dīnād̲j̲pūr, defeated the Muḥammadan king of Bengal and seized the throne, on which he was succeeded by his son and grandson, Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Muḥammad and S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Aḥmad (1414—1442 a. d.). The tomb of a pīr named Nēkmard is frequented by pilgrims, and is also the scene of an annual cattle fair, at which the attendance reaches 100,000 persons. (J. S. Cotton) Bibliography W. W. Hunter, A Statistic…


(81 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
(from Balōčī Ḏj̲ahl = below, or southern), province of Balōčistān, lying below or S. of Sarawān, giving its name to one of the two great divisions of the Brahōī confederacy: area, 21,128 sq.m.; pop. (1901), 224,073, mostly Brahōīs, with here and there a few Balōč, and Lōrīs; capital, Ḵh̲uzdār. It is mainly a grazing country, supporting vast numbers of sheep and goats, with some camels and a few horses. (J. S. Cotton) Bibliography Baluchistan Gazetteer. Vol. vi. B. (Bombay, 1907).


(216 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, or Vijayapura, (= “city of victory”), a town and district of India, in the Bombay presidency. Area of district: 5,669 sq. m.; pop. (1901): 735, 435, of whom only 11% are Muḥammadans. It consists for the most part of a barren upland tract, very liable to drought. The language of the great majority is Kanarese, and many belong to the Lingāyat sect. The town has been the head quarters of the district (formerly called Kalādgi) since 1885; pop. (1901): 23, 811. It was the capital of the ʿĀdil ¶ S̲h̲āhī dynasty [q. v.] which established its independence of the Bahmanīs in 1490, and was …


(151 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, or Banāras (also called Kāsī), a holy city of the Hindus, United Provinces, on the r. bank of the Ganges: pop. (1901) 209, 331, including 53,566 Muḥammadans, of whom many belong to the Ḏj̲ulāhā or weaving class. Some descendants of the Mug̲h̲al Emperors of Dihlī reside here. Benares is not prominent in Muḥammadan ¶ history, except for Awrangzēb, who razed to the ground the most sacred Hindu temple and built on its site a mosque, whose white domes and minarets are still the most conspicuous object from the river. He also changed the name of the ci…


(73 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, or Karnatak, a term of varied application in Indian geography. As meaning the country where Kanarese is spoken, it seems to have been applied originally to the Hindu kingdom of Vid̲j̲ayanagar. When the Muḥammadans conquered this kingdom in 1565, they extended the name further south, so that the English erroneously applied it to the Nawwāb who ruled at Arcot, where the language is not Kanarese but Tamil. (J. S. Cotton)


(101 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, a town and district of India, in Bundelkhand, United Provinces. Area of district: 3,060 sq. m.; pop. (1901): 631,058, of whom only 6% are Muḥammadans. The town near the Ken river, has a pop. (1901) of 22,565. At the beginning of the 19th cent., it was the capital of S̲h̲amshīr Bahādur, grandson of Bād̲j̲ī Rao, the Marāṭhā Pes̲h̲wā, by a Muḥammadan woman. The last Nawwāb of Bāndā, ʿAlī Bahādur, rebelled in the Mutiny of 1857, and the family now receives a pension from the British Government. (J. S. Cotton) Bibliography District Gazetteer of the United Provinces, xxi (Allahabad, 1909). ¶


(224 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, or Kālīkātā, the capital of the province of Bengal, and, till 1911, also that of British India, situated on the right bank of the Hugli, the most eastern mouth of the Ganges, which is here navigable by the largest shipping. Area, 20,547 acres; pop. (1901), 847,796, being 41 persons per acre. If all the suburbs and also Howrah on the opposite side of the river be added, the total would be raised to 1,106,738. Muḥammadans form about 29%, of whom the vast majority returned themselves as S̲h̲aik̲h̲s…


(111 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
In 1901, the total number of Muḥammadans in Burma was 339,446, of whom more than half are found in Akyab, where they form 30% of the inhabitants. In Rangoon city there are many wealthy Muḥammadan merchants. The most interesting class is that called Zairbādīs, the offspring of Burmese women by Muḥammadan natives of India, who numbered altogether 20,423. In Upper Burma the male parents are said to be derived from three quarters: immigrants from northern India, prisoners from Arakan, and prisoners…


(63 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, a native state in southern India, enclosed within the Madras district of Karnūl. Area: 255 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 32,264; revenue, Rs. 96,000. The chief, whose title is Nawwāb and who is a S̲h̲īʿa by sect, traces his descent from a grantee of the Bīd̲j̲āpūr Sulṭān towards the end of the XVIIth cent. (J. S. Cotton) Bibliography Imperial Gazetteer of India.


(186 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
(Kambāya), a Feudatory State in the western part of the province of Gud̲j̲arāt, India, at the head of the gulf of the same name; area, 350 square miles; population (1901), 75,225, of whom 13% are Muḥammadans. The Nawwāb, a S̲h̲īʿah by sect, traces his descent from Muʾmin Ḵh̲ān, governor of Gud̲j̲arāt, who died in 1742. The town of Cambay (population in 1901, 31,780) was in early times one of the chief ports of Gud̲j̲arāt and at the time of its conquest by the Musulmans in 1298 is said to have been one of the richest towns in India; but the silting up of the harbour at the close of the xvith cent, drove …


(211 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, native state on the W. coast of India, about 50 m. S. of Bombay: area, 324 sq.m.; pop. (1901), 85,414, of whom 17% are Musalmans: revenue, about £40,000. It takes its name from a rocky island (Ar. d̲j̲aẓīra), which was occupied towards the end of the xvth cent, by Yāḳūt, an Abyssinian in the service of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh, the Niẓām S̲h̲āhī king of Aḥmadnagar. His descendants have since been known as ¶ Sīdīs (from Saiyid), and their territory sometimes as Ḥabsān. In the time of Awrangzēb they became the admirals of the Mug̲h̲al empire. It is their boast that they were ne…


(1,435 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
, the largest and most populous province of British India, comprising the lower courses of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, together with their joint delta. The name does not appear in any Muḥammadan writer before the end of the 13th cent. As a Muḥammadan province, its area and limits were practically the same (though there were frequent changes on the frontier, especially on the W. and the N. E.), from that period until the end of the 16th cent., when it was regularly assessed by the orders of the Emperor Akbar. “On the south the province was bounded by the swamps of …


(125 words)

Author(s): Cotton, J. S.
,or Bid̲j̲nor, a town and district of India, in Rohilkhand, United Provinces. Area of district: 1,791 sq. m.; pop. (1901): 779,951, of whom as many as 35% are Muḥammadans. The town — pop. (1901): 17,583 — is of little importance, but the district is prominent in Rohilla history. It contains the town of Nad̲j̲ībābād, founded about 1750 by Nad̲j̲īb al-Dawla, who rose to be Wazīr of Dihli, and whose son was Zābita Ḵh̲ān. In the Mutiny of 1857, a grandson of Zābita Ḵh̲ān, with the title of Nawwāb of …
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