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Matrica

(96 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Auxiliary fort on the right bank of the Danube on the road from Aquincum to Intercisa in Pannonia inferior; the modern Százhalombatta in Hungary. The camp was built in approximately the 2nd century (Itin. Anton. 245,5; Matrice, Not. dign. occ. 33,36). Under Commodus, burgi ( burgus ) were built in the vicinity, which were intended to prevent ‘the clandestine crossing of brigands’ (CIL III 3385). Remains of canabae and baths (partially restored) are extant. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 78-79 Zs. Visy, Der pannonische Limes in Ungarn, 1…

Varciani

(99 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Οὐαρικιανοί/ Ou arikianoí). A possibly Celtic people in Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,148; Ptol. 2,15,2), whose settlement area can probably be found in the southeast of Pannonia Superior to the east of the Sisciani (Siscia). V. were recruited into the Roman army probably as early as during the Great Pannonian Rebellion (AD 6-9) (cf. CIL XIII 7707; 7804; 8188; CIL V 875; CIL VI 3257) and deployed primarily in the Cohors Varcianorum Equitata. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography B. Saria, s. v. V., in: RE 8 A, 363-365 A. Graf, Übersicht der antiken Geographie von Pannonien…

Costoboci

(120 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κοστοβῶκοι; Kostobôkoi, Paus. 10,34,5; Κοστουβῶκοι; Kostoubôkoi, Cass. Dio 71,12,1; Costoboci, SHA Aur. 22,1; Costobocae, Amm. Marc. 22,8,42; Castaboci/ Castabocae, ILS 1327). A people of Dacian (Thracian?) origin that lived on the eastern margin of the Carpathians. In AD 170, the C. took part in the Marcomanni Wars against Rome. A raid took them through Dacia (cf. CIL III 14214 = ILS 8501) into Greece where they were defeated in  Phocis (Paus. 10,34,5; cf. ILS 1327). The Asdingi inflicted a crushing defeat on them in 171/2 (Cass. Dio 71,12,1). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bib…

Discoduratera

(100 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Δισκοδουρατέραι; Diskodouratérai). A considerable emporium between the modern villages of Gostilitsa and Slaveikovo on the left bank of the Yantra (ancient Iatrus), 12 km west of Drianovo, 32 km south-west of Nicopolis ad Istrum, founded by Augusta Traiana probably during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Enjoyed considerable prosperity under the Severan emperors, when it was fortified; under Aurelian incorporated into the territory of Nicopolis ad Istrum. Numerous inscriptions ([1. 21ff.], IGBulg II, 137-145) and important ruins. Burian, Jan (Prague) Biblio…

Carpi

(130 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κάρποι; Kárpoi). Important Dacian tribe; its original settlement area was located between Olbia and the mouth of the Danube. In the 3rd cent. AD, the C. settled in the lower Danube region. From then on, they were frequently in bloody disputes with Rome, initially in Dacia, later also in Moesia and Thrace; these opened the way into the Roman empire for other tribes, especially the Goths. From the time of the emperor Aurelian, the Romans settled individual groups of the C. in Roman …

Carsium

(100 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman fort on the embankment road of the Danube, built under Trajan, modern Hîrşova/Constanţa in Romania (Tab. Peut. 7,3 Carsio; It. Ant. 224; Not. Dign. or. 39,22 Carso; Geogr. Rav. 4,7,2 Carsion; Ptol. 3,10,5 Κάρσους; Procop. Aed. 4,11,20 Καρσώ). Road junction, ford across the Danube. Destroyed by the Huns, rebuilt, into the 6th cent. garrison for military units, amongst them the legio I Italica, ala II Hispanorum et Aravacorum, milites Scythici. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography R. Vulpe, Histoire ancienne de la Do…

Transmarisca

(157 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Τρασμαρίσκα/ Trasmaríska). Roman fort in Moesia Inferior (Moesi with map) on the right bank of the lower Danube (Ister [2]; Ptol. 3,10,11: Τρομαρίσκα/ Tromaríska; Procop. Aed. 4,7,7; Geogr. Rav. 4,7,1: Stamarisca) between Sexaginta Prista (modern Ruse) and Durostorum, modern Tutrakan (county of Silistra, Bulgaria). T. gained significance from the 2nd cent. AD onwards, when the Cohors I Thracum was temporarily stationed in the fort. At the end of the 3rd cent. increased defence measures were taken on the lower Danube (Limes V), the fo…

Gorsium

(176 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: (It. Ant. 264,4; 265,1; CIL III 3342f.; 3346; 11345). Roman camp and civil settlement in Pannonia inferior, modern Tác/Fejér (near Székesfehérvár/Hungary). Originally, G. was the centre of the Celtic Aravisci; during the Roman period, it was the intersection of the roads Sopianae─Aquincum and Sopianae─Brigetio. Rich archaeological finds attest to the importance of G. (remnants of buildings, burial ground). In the 1st cent. AD the camp which harboured the ala I Scubulorum was installed. The garrison was discharged…

Siculus Flaccus

(77 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Along with Frontinus and Hyginus, most significant of the Roman surveyors. He probably lived under Trajan and Hadrian in the 2nd cent. AD and in his work De condicionibus agrorum ('On the legal status of landholdings') described the forms of Roman land ownership and the working methods of gromatici ( groma ); what survives of it [1] relates to Italy. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography 1 C. Thulin (ed.), Corpus agrimensorum Romanorum, vol. 1.1, 1913, 98-130.

Surveyors

(545 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Marking out  fields or extensive farmlands, cities, temple districts and military camps and determining the directions of roads, aqueducts, etc., presupposed a number of measuring tasks which were carried out by technically trained surveyors. In Roman sources, from which our only  knowledge of the variety of problems of this specific discipline comes, these workers were termed, e.g. mensores ( agrorum), agrimensores, metatores, finitores and gromatici. The last term is derived from groma , the bearing apparatus used for measuring ta…

Zaldapa

(133 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Ζάλδαπα/ Záldapa). Late Roman and early Byzantine settlement and fort (Iohannes Antiochenus FHG 4,32; Procop. Aed. 4,11,20; name probably Thracian) in Moesia inferior (Scythia minor). Formerly identified with Abrit(t)us, today Z. is equated with modern Abtaat to the southwest of Tropaeum Traiani (modern Adamclisi). There were road connections with Tropaeum Traiani, Scopis, Durostorum and Tomis. Z. was the birth-place of Vitalianus, a usurper against Anastasius [1] I. Towards the end of the 6th cent., the settlement was destroyed by Avari and Slavs. Burian, Jan…

Porolissum

(181 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Daci, Dacia | Limes (Πορόλισσον/ Porólisson). Settlement in northwestern Dacia (CIL III 7986; CIL XVI 132; Tab. Peut. 8,3: Porolisso; Ptol. 3,8,6; Daci, Dacia), in the area of modern Moigrad-Jas (near Cluj in Romania). Already occupied by the Romans under Trajan (AD 98-117) and, owing to its strategic location, an important military base with two camps. P. played a significant role as a centre of trade and administration in the province of Dacia Porolissensis, which was established in AD 124. The civ…

Cius, [2]

(112 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman fortification and statio on the road along the Danube from Carsium to Beroe and Troesmis in Moesia Inferior, modern Gîrliciu/Constanţa in Rumania (It. Ant. 224: Cio; Not. Dign. Or. 39,6,14: Cii). A Roman garrison may already be assumed in the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD, in the 4th cent. C. was the base of a cuneus (division) equitum stablesianorum. In 369 Emperor Valens defeated the Gothic king Athanaric there (CIL III 7494). Last fortification work in the Valentinian period. Archaeological finds: ruins, inscriptions, hoard find of the 4…

Ulpianum

(127 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Οὐλπιανόν/ Ou lpianón, Οὐλπιάνα/ Ou lpiána). Roman fort and probably from the time of Hadrianus a municipium in Moesia superior (Moesi; Ptol. 3,9,6; Procop. Goth. 4,25,13; Procop. Aed. 4,1,29; Iord. Get. 285), modern Gračanica (in the district of Priština in Kosovo). There is evidence of a decurio and an ordo municipii; in the Severan period (beginning of the 3rd cent. AD) U. was called Res Publica Ulpiana (CIL III 1685 f.). U. was the centre of a mining district, an important road hub and prob…

Dorticum

(116 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Δορτικόν; Dortikón). Roman fort on the right bank of the Danube at the mouth of the Timacus (modern Timok), originally in Moesia Superior, in Dacia Ripensis after 271, today Vrav, Vidin in Bulgaria. In the 4th cent., location of the cuneus equitum Dalmatarum Divitensium. Still known as a fortress under Justinian. On its localization cf. also [1. 60, 77,248]. References: Geogr. Rav. 4,7,8; Tab. Peut.; It. Ant. 219,1; Not. Dign. Or. 42,3,14; Ptol. 3,9,4 (Δορτικόν); Procop. Aed. 4,6,20. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibli…

Sarmizegetusa

(236 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Limes | Pertinax | Rome | Balkans, languages Town in Dacia (cf. Ptol. 3,8,9: Ζαρμιζεγέθουσα/ Zarmizegéthousa; Cass. Dio 68,8,7: Ζερμιζεγέθουσα/ Zermizegéthousa; Dig. 50,15,1,9: Zarmizegetusa; Geogr. Rav 4,7: Sarmazege; Tab. Peut. 7,5: Sarmategte; in the inscriptions mainly S.), modern Hunedoara, Haţeg (Romania). In the pre-Roman Period, the centre was a settlement of the Daci and residence of the Dacian kings (S. Regia in Dacia Superior). Owing…

Savaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Limes | Pannonia | Rome | Rome Roman colony in Pannonia superior, modern Szombathely in western Hungary. Its location on the Amber Road (route Aquileia - Carnuntum) and good road connections to Arrabona and via Sopianae to Sirmium enabled a swift economic growth. Under Claudius [III 1] a colony was founded in S. ( Colonia Divi Claudii S.: Plin. HN 3,146), t ribus Claudia. Until AD 106 S. was the administrative centre of the province. As a centre of communications and admi…

Tapae

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Daci, Dacia Town at which L. Tettius [II 2] Iulianus was victorious over the Daci in 88/9 AD (Iord. Get. 10,12; Τάπαι, Cass. Dio 67,10,2; 68,8,1). It was from there that Trajan set out on his first campaign against the Daci in 101 AD. The identification of T. is uncertain (between Tibiscum and Sarmizegetusa or the 'Iron Gate'). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography J. Dobiáš, The History of Czechoslovacian Territory before the Appearance of the Slavs, 1964, 171 f., 176 (Czech).

Pathissus

(110 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] The biggest left-hand Sarmatian tributary of the Danube, the modern Tisa (Tisza, Theiß), which flows through the Ukraine, Romania, Slovakia, Hungary and Serbia and into the Danube near Acumincum (the modern Stari Slankamen) in Pannonia inferior (Plin. HN. 4,80; Parthiscus: Amm. Marc. 17,13,4; cf. Str. 7,5,2). The Latin name Tisia only appears in late-antique sources (cf. Iord. Get. 33). The river constituted a serious obstacle with its wide bed and its swampy environment. The area between the P. and the Danube was settled primar…

Oescus

(332 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Right bank tributary of the Danube in Moesia inferior Right bank tributary of the Danube in Moesia inferior (Plin. HN 3,149; Tab. Peut. 8,1: Escus; Hdt. 4,49: Σκίος/ Skíos; Thuc. 2,96,4: Ὄσκιος/ Óskios), modern Iskăr (Bulgaria). Burian, Jan (Prague) [German version] [2] Roman town This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia Roman town (Ptol. 3,10,10: Οἶσκος Τριβαλλῶν/ Oîskos Triballôn, cf. 8,11,6; Tab. Peut. 8,1: Escus), modern Gigen (Bulgaria), near the confluence of the O. [1] with the Danube. O. is to…
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