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(248 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a place near Medīna famous for the battle fought there between the related tribes of the Aws and Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲, some years before the Migration of Muḥammad and his adherents to that town. It belonged to the Jewish tribe of Ḳuraiẓa, and according to Samhūdī, was two miles east (to be more accurate south-east) of Medīna, above a cornfield called Ḳawrā. A few incidental mentions of the place in the traditions help to locate it more accurately. Muḥammad’s men, who slew Kaʿb b. Ashraf, went past the …


(1,895 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Tiberias, a town on the western side of the lake of Tiberias (sea of Galilee) ( Buḥairat Ṭabarīya) through which the Jordan flows to the south; the lake is rich in fishes, is 13 miles long, 6 broad and lies 700 feet below the level of the Mediterranean; the town is long and narrow as it is shut in by the steep hills on the west which come right down to the water, north and south of the town. S.S.W. of the town is the Mount of Herod. Ṭabarīya had probably a predecessor in a little town in this ¶ region mentioned in the Old Testament (on account of the hot springs some identify it with Hammat,…


(507 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Muḥammad’s first wife, was a daughter of Ḵh̲uwailid of the Ḳurais̲h̲ family of ʿAbd al-ʿUzzā. The authorities are unanimous in saying that when she made Muḥammad’s acquaintance and took him into her service she was a well-to-do merchant’s widow who was carrying on business independently. She had been twice married previously and had children of both marriages. The one husband was a Mak̲h̲zūmī, the other a Tamīmī, Abū Hāla, whose real name is variously given; but this Abū Hāla is also mentioned…


(785 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, also called Badr Ḥunain, a small town southwest of Medīna, a short night’s journey distant from the coast situated at the union of the rood from Medīna and the caravan route from Syria to Mecca. The houses were, when Burckhardt visited it, built partly of clay and partly of stone and surrounded by a wretched mud wall. The inhabitants were, for the most part, Beduins of whom many however had only their booths in the town while they spent the night in their tents on the hills. In the time of Muḥamma…


(845 words)

Author(s): Būhl, Fr.
, an old Arabian goddess, whose name means “the Strong, the Powerful”. She was especially associated with the G̲h̲aṭafān (cf. Yāḳūt, i. 296) but her principal sanctuary was in the valley of Nak̲h̲la on the road from Ṭāʾif to Mecca (cf. Yāḳūt, iv. 765 sqq.) to which Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit (ed. Hirschfeld, xci. 3, where nak̲h̲la is to be read) refers. It consisted of three samura (acacia) trees in one of which the goddess revealed herself. It also included the sacred stone (Wāḳidī, transl. Wellhausen, p. 351) and the so-called G̲h̲abg̲h̲ab, a cave into wh…


(385 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, an old Arabian goddess. The name (from al-ilāhat; cf. alilat) means “the goddess” but was the proper name of a definite deity, according to the Arabs themselves (e. g. Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲, ed. Jahn, p. 44, 23) the sun. She is found as early as the Nabataean and Palmyran inscriptions and was later worshipped by various Beduin tribes (e.g. the Hawāzin; Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 849, 13). An oath by al-Lāt is frequently found in the poets, e. g. Abū Saʿd in Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 567, 7, Mutalammis, ed. Vollers, p. 2, 1, ʿAws b. Had̲j̲ar, ed. Geyer, p. 11, 2, and even in al-Ak̲h̲ṭal, Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, vii. 173. She had …


(170 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), pl. nawāḳīs, a kind of rattle used and in some places still used by Christians in the east to summon the community to divine service. It is a board pierced with holes which is beaten with a rod. The name, which comes from the Syriac nāḳūs̲h̲ā is not infrequently found with the verbs ḍaraba or ṣakka in the old Arabic poets, especially when early morning is to be indicated, e. g. ʿAntara, app.; Labīd, N°. 19, 6; Z.D.M.G., xxxiii. 215; Mutalammis, ed. Vollers, p. 178, v. 6; al-Aʿs̲h̲ā in Nöldeke’s Delectus, p. 26; Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, xix. 92. According to tradition, Muḥammad hesitated b…

Kaʿb b. al-As̲h̲raf

(440 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a Medīna opponent of Muḥammad, according to one statement a Naḍīrī, according to another, a member of the Ṭaiyiʾī family of Nabhān but the son of a Naḍīrī woman. In any case, he was an ardent champion of Judaism (cf. the expression saiyid al-aḥbār, Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 659, 12). Aroused by the result of the battle of Badr, he went to Mecca where he used his considerable poetic gifts (in the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī he is called faḥl faṣīḥ) to incite the Ḳurais̲h̲ to fight against the victor. He then returned to Medīna, where he is said to have compromised the wives of the Muslims …

Muṣʿab b. ʿUmair

(385 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a follower of Muḥammad of the Ḳurais̲h̲ family of ʿAbd al-Dār. The son of rich parents, this handsome young man had attacted attention by his elegant appearance when Muḥammad’s preaching made so deep an impression upon him that he abandoned the advantages of his social position to join the despised adherents of the Prophet. Tradition dilates on the contrast between his former luxurious life and later poverty but these, like such stories in general, are somewhat suspicious, although not impossi…


(154 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the title of Sūra ex., taken from its first verse. The word means “help, assistance” and is often used of God’s help in war and then with the meaning of “victory”. Sūra lxi. 13 is also associated with al-fatḥ, cf. xlviii. 13. The Sūra clearly belongs to a later period and verse 2 in particular recalls the year 9, the Year of the Embassies. It is therefore natural to refer al-fatḥ (verse 1) in keeping with the frequent use of the word to the capture of Mecca, except that it is not mentioned as a fact (as Weil, Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 933 translates it) but is represented as an assumption, which is a…


(354 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, poor, a loanword which has shown remarkable vitality. It goes back to the Assyrian muskénu, “poor” (in the Laws of Hammurabi it is a name for a class between those enjoying full citizenship and slaves; according to L. W. King: freemen who do not belong to the ruling race). In the meaning “poor” it has passed into Aramaic ( meskīn), Hebrew ( miskēn), North Arabic ( miskīn or, against analogy, maskīn), into Southern Arabic and Ethiopie ( meskīn). It has passed from Arabic into Italian as meschino and into French as mesquin. In Arabic, on the analogy of the form mifʿīl, it is usually of common g…


(1,429 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), corruption of a document, whereby the original sense is altered. It may happen in various ways, by direct alteration of the written text, by arbitrary alterations in reading aloud the text which is itself correct, by omitting parts of it or by interpolations or by a wrong exposition of the true sense. The Muslims found occasion to deal with this conception in connection with those passages in the Ḳurʾān where Muḥammad accused the Jews of falsifying the books of revelation given them, i. e. the Thora, ḥarrafū [cf. ḳorʾān, vol. ii. 1066a]. This accusation was really the only way of…


(487 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Rabāḥ, the first Muʾad̲h̲d̲h̲in, a slave of Abyssinian origin, who belonged to a man of the tribe of Ḏj̲umaḥ b. ʿAmr, was early attracted by Muḥammad’s preaching and joined his little band of followers. For this he was persecuted by the Prophet’s enemies, but remained steadfast in his belief in the one God, which induced Abū Bakr to purchase him and give him his freedom. He fled with Muḥammad to Medīna where he immediately found a welcome from Saʿd b. Ḵh̲ait̲h̲ama. He afterwards dwelled in the…


(235 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a woman of the Banū Saʿd b. Bakr, according to Tradition, Muḥammad’s nurse. In a year of famine she came to Mecca with other women of her tribe to seek foster-children and finally adopted the orphan Muḥammad, who soon brought great happiness to her household. During his stay with her, two angels came to him, opened his breast and took out a black clot of blood. Although in the later accounts of Muḥammad’s wars there are one or two illusions to his foster-kinship with the Banū Saʿd, the whole s…


(618 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a son of Abū Bakr and one of his wives, Asmāʾ of the tribe of Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam. He was born in the last year of Muḥammad’s life so that his father could not have exercised any influence on him, while the memories of Abū Bakr’s great friend which were kept alive in his family must have had all the more influence on the passionate nature of the boy, which receives important confirmation from the fact that Ibn Ḳutaiba describes him as one of the “pious” ( nussāk) among the Ḳurais̲h̲ When in the reign of ʿUt̲h̲mān the bitterness at the preference of the Umaiyads in combination with a re…


(520 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, an old settlement in a wellwatered oasis in northern Arabia, four days’ journey south of Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal; according to Muḳaddasī, three from Ḥid̲j̲r and four from Wādi ’l-Ḳurā. It lies in a depression the length of which Jaussen and Savignac put at 2 miles with a breadth of 500 yards. The subterranean waters collect and burst forth into a well 40—45 feet deep and about 60 feet in diameter, according to the two travellers just named. Taimāʾ is mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions and in th…


(867 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Nazareth, the home of Jesus, lies in a depression sloping to the south surrounded by hills in a fertile district. While the hills to the north and northeast are not very high, in the northwest the Ḏj̲ebel al-Sīk̲h̲, rises to 1,600 feet above sea-level. The name of the town, which does not occur in the Old Testament, is found in the New and in the Greek fathers of the Church in the varying forms Ναζαρα Ναζαρετ and Nαζαρεϧ with ζ, but according to Jerome it had in Hebrew a ṣade, which is confirmed by the Syriac Nāṣrat and the Arabic Nāṣira as well as by the Taimudic derivative form , pl. while the Christ…


(378 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a castle in Ṣanʿā in the Yaman, famous for its size and splendour. Hamdānī and other contemporary geographers give very full descriptions of it, but by that time it had long been merely a gigantic ruin. It is said to have been already destroyed when the Abyssinians conquered the Yaman in 525 a. d. It was then rebuilt, however, for, according to an oft quoted verse, which is ascribed by some to the father of the celebrated Umaiya b. Abi ’l-Ṣalt, it was the abode of Ḏh̲ū Yazan’s son, after the Persians had conquered South Arabia about 570. Several …


(516 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Zaid b. Muḥammad, a greatgrandson of the preceding, founder of an ʿAlid dynasty in Ṭābaristān. The high-handed and ruthless rule of the Ṭāhirids produced such resentment in this country that a number of men, under the ¶ influence of the strong ʿAlid sentiment in these regions, looked around for a man of ʿAlī’s line to whom they could entrust the government. They therefore turned to Ḥasan who was living in Raiy and had been recommended to them by another ʿAlid; the choice proved a fortunate one, for Ḥasan possessed an energy and …


(1,118 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town in central Palestine, the name of which is derived from that of Flavia Neapolis built in honour of Vespanian. Its Old Testament predecessor was S h e c h e m, which however lay more to the east, on the site of the present village of Balāṭa (the name is explained by S. Klein, in Z. D. P. V., xxxv. 38 sq.; cf. R. Hartmann, ibid., xxxiii. 175 sq., as “platanus”, from the evidence of the pilgrim of Bordeaux and the Midras̲h̲ Gen. rb., c. 81, § 3). According to Eusebius, the place where the old town stood was pointed out in a suburb of Neapolis. The correctness of this identi…
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