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(713 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, originally a pebble, is particularly used of the heaps of stones in the valley of Minā which have been formed by the stones thrown by the pilgrims returning from the festival at ʿArafat. There are three heaps which are a bowshot from one another: al-d̲j̲amra al-ūlā (or al-dunyā) to the east near the Mosque of al-Ḵh̲aif, al-d̲j̲amra al-wusṭā in the centre and d̲j̲amrat (d̲h̲āt-)al-ʿAḳaba at the western exit of the valley. The first two are bounded by thick stone pillars and the third by a wall. Al-Muḥaṣṣab is also used for al-Ḏj̲amra but it is also the name of a plain between Mec…


(333 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, al-Abras̲h̲ or al-Waḍḍāḥ (i. e. the leper), a legendary Arab king, who founded an important kingdom on the lower Euphrates, including the towns of al-Ḥīra, al-Anbār etc., before the Lak̲h̲mid dynasty appeared in this territory. Traditions vary as to his relationship to the other rulers, who are mentioned in the pre-Lak̲h̲mid period, though the North Arabian legends are agreed that he was an Azdite. Stories of him are very popular and various Arabic proverbs refer to him. So proud was he that he ¶ would only have two stars or idols ( al-Farḳadāni, or al-Ḍaizanāni, or al-Ḍarībāni) as his bo…

Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafīya

(1,110 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a son of ʿAlī and Ḵh̲awla. a woman of the tribe of the Banū Ḥanīfa, who had been brought a prisoner to Medīna after the battle of ʿAḳrabāʾ [q, v.] and came into ʿAlī’s possession (cf. Saiyid’s poem Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, vii. 4: “she was a servant in the house”); he was born in 16 a. h. Although he did not, like Ḥasan and Ḥusain, have the blood of the Prophet in his veins, he became involved not only in the political turmoils but also in the schemes which the boundless fancies of the extreme S̲h̲īʿīs built up around the family of ʿAlī. He was not to bl…


(867 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Nazareth, the home of Jesus, lies in a depression sloping to the south surrounded by hills in a fertile district. While the hills to the north and northeast are not very high, in the northwest the Ḏj̲ebel al-Sīk̲h̲, rises to 1,600 feet above sea-level. The name of the town, which does not occur in the Old Testament, is found in the New and in the Greek fathers of the Church in the varying forms Ναζαρα Ναζαρετ and Nαζαρεϧ with ζ, but according to Jerome it had in Hebrew a ṣade, which is confirmed by the Syriac Nāṣrat and the Arabic Nāṣira as well as by the Taimudic derivative form , pl. while the Christ…


(235 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a woman of the Banū Saʿd b. Bakr, according to Tradition, Muḥammad’s nurse. In a year of famine she came to Mecca with other women of her tribe to seek foster-children and finally adopted the orphan Muḥammad, who soon brought great happiness to her household. During his stay with her, two angels came to him, opened his breast and took out a black clot of blood. Although in the later accounts of Muḥammad’s wars there are one or two illusions to his foster-kinship with the Banū Saʿd, the whole s…

G̲h̲adīr al-K̲h̲umm

(236 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a pond or marsh formed by a spring in a wādī on the left of the road from Medīna to Mecca, three (according to others one or two) Arab miles from Ḏj̲uḥfa. The Arab geographers mention the thick trees that surround it and the mosque of the Prophet lying between it and the spring; the few inhabitants belonged in Yāḳūt’s time to the Ḵh̲uzāʿa and Kināna. Near it was al-Ḵh̲arrār, to which Saʿd b. Abī Waḳḳāṣ was sent in the year 1 A. 11. with a few followers by the Prophet. The place has become famous through a tradition which had its origin among the S̲h̲īʿīs but ¶ is also found among Sunnīs, viz., the P…

Bait Ḏj̲abrīn

(469 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(Ḏj̲ibrīn) or, after a popular etymology: Bait Ḏj̲ibrīl (Gabriel’s house), a town in southwestern Judea. It was the successor of the neighbouring town of Mares̲h̲a, destroyed by the Parthians (again discovered in Sandahanna) and is first mentioned by Josephus ( Bell. Jud. iv. 8, 1, where ΒηταβριΣ; is undoubtedly a corruption of the name) and by Ptolemy v. 15, 5 as Βαιτογαβρει and in the Tabula Peutingeriana as Betogabri. In the Talmudic writings the name appears as ¶ Beth Gubrin. In Roman Imperial times the town received the name of Eleutheropolis, but this was soon, as …


(758 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a contemptuous diminutive from Maṣlama, which is the form of his name given in Mubarrad, Kāmil, ed. Wright, p. 443, 5; Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 422 ult.; cf. Ṭulaiḥa [q. v.] for Ṭalḥa), a prophet of the Banū Ḥanīfa in Yamāma contemporary with Muḥammad. His genealogy is variously given but always contains the name Ḥabīb; his kunya was Abū T̲h̲umāma. According to the usual account, he appeared as a prophet soon after the death of Muḥammad, after having visited the latter in Medīna with a deputation. There is however another tradition according to …


(154 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the title of Sūra ex., taken from its first verse. The word means “help, assistance” and is often used of God’s help in war and then with the meaning of “victory”. Sūra lxi. 13 is also associated with al-fatḥ, cf. xlviii. 13. The Sūra clearly belongs to a later period and verse 2 in particular recalls the year 9, the Year of the Embassies. It is therefore natural to refer al-fatḥ (verse 1) in keeping with the frequent use of the word to the capture of Mecca, except that it is not mentioned as a fact (as Weil, Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 933 translates it) but is represented as an assumption, which is a…


(981 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the ancient ʿAzza, Greek Γάζα, an important commercial town in southwestern Judaea, near the coast at the intersection of the chief route to Egypt and several caravan routes from Arabia. The town belonged to the Philistines and was not taken by the Jews till the time of Alexander Jannaeus who had it destroyed. It was rebuilt by Gabinius somewhat farther south than the ancient town the ruins of which were still visible in the fifth century. The harbour of Maiumas (cf. Mitteilungen u. Nachrichten des Deutsch. Pal. Vereins, 1901, p. 52) was 2-3 miles away. Under Roman rule it belong…


(389 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the Arabic name of the southern half of the eastern Jordan district. In the narrative of the unfortunate Muʾta expedition, it also comprises the land south of Arnon, for both Maʾāb (Rabbat Moab) and Muʾta and the village of Mas̲h̲ārif (this however is identified with Muʾta by al-Mubarrad Kāmil 639 et seq.) were included in it. According to Wāḳidī its southern boundary was a day’s journey distant from Ḏh̲āt Aṭlāḥ. The whole eastern Jordan district is often (e. g. Ṭabarī, Annales, 1, 2646; 3, 52) designated by al-Balḳāʾ, Bat̲h̲anīya [q. v.] and Ḥawrān. The town of Arbad (Irb…


(443 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
or Ḏj̲urham, Γοραμα in Steph. Byz., an ancient Arabian tribe, who according to tradition once lived in Mecca, whither they had migrated from the Yaman. They must have been exterminated by some catastrophe at quite an early date, for a poet, a contemporary of the Prophet, (Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 468, 3, cf. also Kāmil, ed. Wright, 445, 2) held them up as a warning to the Ḳurais̲h̲ites along with ʿĀd. Later genealogists therefore reckon them with the ʿAmaliḳ, ʿĀd, T̲h̲amūd etc., among the prehistoric, original Arabs (the ʿArab al-ʿĀriba), whose descent they trace from ʿĀbar (ʿEber) and who…


(241 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
is an old Arabic formula of invocation: “Allāh!”, for which also Lāhumma is found (cf. Nöldeke, Zur Grammatik d. class. Arab. p. 6). Whether, as Wellhausen supposes in his Reste arabischen Heidentums (2nd ed.) p. 224, it was originally meant for the god Allāh, higher than and different from the old Arabian gods, is rather doubtful, because every god might be invoked as “the God” (just as “the Lord”). It was used in praying, offering, concluding a treaty and blessing or cursing (see Goldziher, ¶ Abhandlungen z. arab. Philol. i. 35 et seq.; cf. also the expression Allāhuma ḥaiyi = much good ma…


(520 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, an old settlement in a wellwatered oasis in northern Arabia, four days’ journey south of Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal; according to Muḳaddasī, three from Ḥid̲j̲r and four from Wādi ’l-Ḳurā. It lies in a depression the length of which Jaussen and Savignac put at 2 miles with a breadth of 500 yards. The subterranean waters collect and burst forth into a well 40—45 feet deep and about 60 feet in diameter, according to the two travellers just named. Taimāʾ is mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions and in th…


(619 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(Bostka), at the present day also called Eski-S̲h̲ām (Old Damascus), the centre of a Nāḥiya, is a wretched village in Ḥawrān, with imposing ruins recalling its past splendour. The existence of the town can first be definitely proved in the Maccabee period (1 Mace. v. 26) but in the period following, it is much more frequently mentioned and in Roman times under the name of Nova Trajana Bostra it was expanded and fortified; after Diocletian it was the capital of the province of Arabia. It does not seem t…


(241 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a port at the foot of Mount Carmel. The name is not found in the Old Testament and is first found as ʿΗΦα in Eusebius and as Ḥaifa in the Talmud. After the Arab conquest of Palestine Ḥaifa, which was overshadowed by ʿAkka, did not play an important part and it is not till the middle of the xith century that we have a brief description of it by Nāṣir Ḵh̲usraw, who mentions the many palm-groves and the large barques built by its inhabitants. In 1100 the town was taken by the Crusaders and attained some importance, as is clear from Idrīsī’s account of it…


(266 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. ʿAbd al-Manāf, ancestor of the Hās̲h̲imids. The tradition that Muḥammad belonged to this family is confirmed by several ancient poems e. g. Aʿs̲h̲ā in Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 256, 1 who calls Muḥammad Hās̲h̲im’s son, cf. also p. 633, 18; 799, 13. But whether Hās̲h̲im really was ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib’s father and Muḥammad’s grandfather, as tradition avers, is by no means so certain, as the association of the Banū Hās̲h̲im with the Banū Muṭṭalib, ibid. p. 536, 14, or the enumeration of the Meccan families in Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit ( Kāmil, p. 141, sq.) do not exactly corroborate it. In any case, all …

Kaʿb b. al-As̲h̲raf

(440 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a Medīna opponent of Muḥammad, according to one statement a Naḍīrī, according to another, a member of the Ṭaiyiʾī family of Nabhān but the son of a Naḍīrī woman. In any case, he was an ardent champion of Judaism (cf. the expression saiyid al-aḥbār, Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 659, 12). Aroused by the result of the battle of Badr, he went to Mecca where he used his considerable poetic gifts (in the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī he is called faḥl faṣīḥ) to incite the Ḳurais̲h̲ to fight against the victor. He then returned to Medīna, where he is said to have compromised the wives of the Muslims …

Muṣʿab b. ʿUmair

(385 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a follower of Muḥammad of the Ḳurais̲h̲ family of ʿAbd al-Dār. The son of rich parents, this handsome young man had attacted attention by his elegant appearance when Muḥammad’s preaching made so deep an impression upon him that he abandoned the advantages of his social position to join the despised adherents of the Prophet. Tradition dilates on the contrast between his former luxurious life and later poverty but these, like such stories in general, are somewhat suspicious, although not impossi…


(1,118 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town in central Palestine, the name of which is derived from that of Flavia Neapolis built in honour of Vespanian. Its Old Testament predecessor was S h e c h e m, which however lay more to the east, on the site of the present village of Balāṭa (the name is explained by S. Klein, in Z. D. P. V., xxxv. 38 sq.; cf. R. Hartmann, ibid., xxxiii. 175 sq., as “platanus”, from the evidence of the pilgrim of Bordeaux and the Midras̲h̲ Gen. rb., c. 81, § 3). According to Eusebius, the place where the old town stood was pointed out in a suburb of Neapolis. The correctness of this identi…
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