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Hind Bint ʿUtba

(365 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Rabīʿa , mother of Muʿāwiya; this Meccan woman, who belonged to the clan of the ʿAbd S̲h̲ams (see the list of her maternal ancestors in Muḥ. b. Ḥabīb, Muḥabbar , 19), had mairied as her third husband Abū Sufyān b. Ḥarb, to whom she bore other children besides the future caliph. Traditions hostile to the Umayyads draw an extremely repellant portrait, apparently something of a caricature, of this short, stout woman who quite certainly had a highly passionate temperament and who on different occasions m…

Allāhumma

(232 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
is an old Arabic formula of invocation: "Allāh!", for which also Lahumma is found (cf. Nöldeke, Zur Grammatik d. class. Arab., 6). Whether, as Wellhausen supposes in his Reste arabischen Heidentums 2, 224, it was originally meant for the god Allāh, higher than and different from the old Arabian gods, is rather doubtful, because every god might be invoked as "the God" (just as "the Lord". It was used in praying, offering, concluding a treaty and blessing or cursing (see Goldziher, Abhandlungen z. arab . Philol ., i, 35 ff.; cf. also the expression Allāhuma ḥayyi =much …

al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. Muḥammad

(448 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Ismāʿīl b. al-Ḥasan b. Zayd , a descendant of the preceding, founder of an ʿAlid dynasty in Ṭabaristān [ q.v.]. The high-handed rule of the Ṭāhirids on the one hand and, on the other, the settlement of ʿAlid elements in the region led to a rising in favour of al-Ḥasan b. Zayd, al-dāʿī al-kabīr , in 250/864. Al-Ḥasan, who was living at Rayy, was proclaimed sovereign by a section of the population of Ṭabaristān and received the allegiance of Wahsūdān b. Ḏj̲ustān of Daylam [ q.v.]. He succeeded in defeating the Ṭāhirid troops and seizing the towns of Āmul and Sāriya, while D̲j̲us…

Muḥammad Ibn al-Ḥanafiyya

(1,077 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a son of ʿAlīb. Abī Ṭālib [ q.v.] and K̲h̲awla. a woman of the tribe of the Banū Ḥanīfa, who had been brought a prisoner to Medina after the battle of ʿAḳrabāʾ [ q.v.] and came into ʿAlī’s possession (cf. al-Sayyid’s poem Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, vii, 4: “she was a servant in the house”); he was born in 16 a.h. ¶ Although he did not, like al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn, have the blood of the Prophet in his veins, he became involved not only in the political turmoils but also in the schemes which the boundless fancies of the extreme S̲h̲īʿīs built up around the family…

Nāḳūs

(168 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), pl. nawāḳīs , a kind of rattle once used and in some places still used by Eastern Christians to summon the community to divine service. It is a board pierced with holes which is beaten with a rod. The name, which comes from the Syriac nāḳōs̲h̲ā , is not infrequently found with the verbs ḍaraba or ṣakka in the old Arabic poets, especially when early morning is to be indicated, e.g. ʿAntara, app.; Labīd, 19, 6; ZDMG, xxxiii, 215; Mutalammis, ed. Vollers, 178, v. 6; al-Aʿs̲h̲ā, in Nöldeke’s Delectus , 26; Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī , xix, 92. According to tradition, Muḥam…

K̲h̲atma, K̲h̲itma

(221 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), pl. k̲h̲itām , the technical name for the recitation of the whole of the Ḳurʾān from beginning to end, the verbal noun from k̲h̲ātama , denominative verb from k̲h̲ātam [ q.v.]. The complete recitation of the Ḳurʾān is, especially if it is done within a short time, a meritorious achievement, e.g. in eight nights, as Ubayy b. Kaʿb is said to have done (Ibn Saʿd, iii/2, 60, 23; cf. on ʿUt̲h̲mān, ibid., iii/1, 53, 3). It is related of Sulaymān al-Aʿmas̲h̲ ¶ that he accomplished the k̲h̲atma at times according to ʿUt̲h̲mān’s recension and at times according …

al-Munāfiḳūn

(765 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), the term applied in the Ḳurʾān to those Medīnese upon whose fidelity and zeal Muḥammad could not absolutely rely. The Arabs (e. g. Mubarrad, Kāmil, ed. Wright, p. 153) derive the word from nāfiḳāʾ (“one of the entrances to the hole of a fieldmouse”), but it is certainly the borrowed Ethiopie manāfeḳ “heretic” from nafaḳa to “split”, nāfaḳa “to be divided, irresolute”. The meaning “waverer”, “doubter” quite fits the usual use of the word in the Ḳurʾān, while the usual translation “hypocrite” only suits a few passages. Another description of the sa…

al-Ḏj̲amra

(713 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, originally a pebble, is particularly used of the heaps of stones in the valley of Minā which have been formed by the stones thrown by the pilgrims returning from the festival at ʿArafat. There are three heaps which are a bowshot from one another: al-d̲j̲amra al-ūlā (or al-dunyā) to the east near the Mosque of al-Ḵh̲aif, al-d̲j̲amra al-wusṭā in the centre and d̲j̲amrat (d̲h̲āt-)al-ʿAḳaba at the western exit of the valley. The first two are bounded by thick stone pillars and the third by a wall. Al-Muḥaṣṣab is also used for al-Ḏj̲amra but it is also the name of a plain between Mec…

Roḳaiya

(336 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, daughter of Muḥammad. That he had four daughters by Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a is repeated by all authorities, but there is no agreement regarding their order, which clearly shows that they aroused little interest in the early period. It is further suspicious that practically the same story is told of two of them, Roḳaiya and Umm Kult̲h̲ūm. They are both said to have married sons of Muḥammad’s uncle Abū Lahab [q. v.] but were forced by their father to divorce them when Muḥammad began his career as a prophet.…

Subḥān Allāh

(526 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, “Praise be to Allāh”, a religious formula, frequent in the Ḳurʾān. It is an accusative of exclamation from a root which does not occur in Arabic (the verb sabhaḥa is rightly explained by the grammarians as derived from the noun), but which goes back as a loanword to Aramaic and was also adopted in Hebrew and Ethiopie, viz.: s̲h̲ebaḥ “to praise”. Muḥammad probably found the expression somewhere among “the possessors of a scripture”, as it is not probable that he himself should have created such a form from a non-Arabic verb. It is also evidence of an extensive use of the word that subḥāna is foun…

Had̲j̲ar

(396 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
in South Arabia means “town” and is therefore often found in place-names; for example there was a Had̲j̲ar in Nad̲j̲rān, one in Ḏj̲āzān and several in Mād̲h̲in, all in South Arabia. The best known is Had̲j̲ar in southern Baḥrain, the ancient capital of the land. It lay in a fertile district rich in palms ( Ḥamāsa, p. 811, v. 1; whence the proverb, Prov. Arab., ed. Freytag, iii. 539) and exported a celebrated kind of date-honey. The population was very mixed (cf. Nöldeke, Ṭabarī, transl., p. 59 et seq.). Under Persian rule a Persian governor, to whom the Arab chief was subordinate, …

al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. al-Ḥasan

(165 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib was a pious man, who, following the example of his father and grandfather, abandoned all political aspirations and reconciled himself to ʿAbbāsid rule. His daughter became the wife of al-Saffāḥ while he himself lived at the Caliph’s court, and is even said to have occasionally communicated the views of his ʿAlid relatives and their dependants to al-Manṣūr. In 150/767 al-Manṣūr made him governor ¶ of Medina, but in 155/772 he aroused the Caliph’s wrath and was dismissed, imprisoned and had his property confiscated. But restitution was made to…

Minā

(1,371 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, later often pronounced Munā , a place in the hills east of Mecca on the road from it to ʿArafa [ q.v.]. The distance between the two is given by al-Muḳaddasī as one farsak̲h̲ , while Wavell calls it five miles and says the continuation to ʿArafa is nine miles. Minā lies in a narrow valley running from west to east, 1,500 paces long according to Burckhardt, surrounded by steep barren granite cliffs. On the north side rises a hill called T̲h̲abīr. Travellers from Mecca come down into the valley by a hill path with steps in it; this is the ʿAḳaba [ q.v.] which became famous in connection with Muḥam…

Ṭarsūs

(988 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town on the frontier between Asia Minor and Syria, the birthplace of the apostle Paul. It lies in a very fertile plain through which flows a river (Cydnos, later Nahr Baradīn). Situated at the junction of several important roads and not far from the sea, even in ancient times it played an important part as a trading centre and was distinguished in the Hellenistic period for the activity of its intellectual life. Christianity spread early there and bishops and metropolitans of Ṭarsūs are mentioned in the Acts of the Councils. When the Arabs had conquered these regions, the Umaiy…

Ḥaifa

(241 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a port at the foot of Mount Carmel. The name is not found in the Old Testament and is first found as ʿΗΦα in Eusebius and as Ḥaifa in the Talmud. After the Arab conquest of Palestine Ḥaifa, which was overshadowed by ʿAkka, did not play an important part and it is not till the middle of the xith century that we have a brief description of it by Nāṣir Ḵh̲usraw, who mentions the many palm-groves and the large barques built by its inhabitants. In 1100 the town was taken by the Crusaders and attained some importance, as is clear from Idrīsī’s account of it…

Maimūna

(211 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the last wife that Muḥammad married. She was the daughter of al-Ḥārit̲h̲ of the Hawāzin tribe of Ṣaʿṣaʿa and a sister-in-law of ʿAbbās. After she had divorced her first husband, a T̲h̲aḳīfī, and her second, the Ḳurais̲h̲ī Abū Rukm, had died, she lived as a widow in Mecca where the Prophet wooed her, primarily no doubt for political reasons, on the ʿumra allowed him in the year 7. His wish to marry her in Mecca was refused by the Meccans in order not to prolong his stay there; the marriage therefore took place in Sarif, ¶ a village north of Mecca. Her brother-in-law ʿAbbās acted as her gu…

Allāhumma

(241 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
is an old Arabic formula of invocation: “Allāh!”, for which also Lāhumma is found (cf. Nöldeke, Zur Grammatik d. class. Arab. p. 6). Whether, as Wellhausen supposes in his Reste arabischen Heidentums (2nd ed.) p. 224, it was originally meant for the god Allāh, higher than and different from the old Arabian gods, is rather doubtful, because every god might be invoked as “the God” (just as “the Lord”). It was used in praying, offering, concluding a treaty and blessing or cursing (see Goldziher, ¶ Abhandlungen z. arab. Philol. i. 35 et seq.; cf. also the expression Allāhuma ḥaiyi = much good ma…

Ṭawāf

(832 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.) from ṭāfa with bi of place) encircling; in the language of ritual the running round or circumambulation of a sacred object, a stone, altar, etc. There are traces of the rite having existed among the Israelites, cf. especially Ps. xxvi. 6 (xxvii. 6, lxx.) and the ceremony of the feast of booths in the time of the Second Temple, where the altar is circumambulated once on the first six days and seven times on the seventh. The rite however was also found among Persians, Indians, Buddhists, Romans a…

Ḥanīf

(1,840 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(pl. ḥunafāʾ) appears repeatedly in the Ḳorʾān as the name of those who possess the real and true religion; e.g. in Sūra, x. 105; xxii. 32; xxx. 29; xcviii. 4 etc. It is used particularly of Abraham as the representative of the pure worship of God. As a rule it contrasts him with the idolaters as in iii. 89; vi. 79, 162; x. 105; xvi. 121, 124; xxii. 32; but in one or two passages it at the’ same time describes him as one who was neither a Jew nor a Christian; e. g. ii. 129: they (the Ahl al-Kitāb) say, become Jews or Christians that ye may be rightly guided! But thou shalt say: the religion of Abraham as a ḥanīf; …

Maḥmal

(999 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(or more correctly: Maḥmil, a.), the name of the splendidly decorated empty litters, which since the xiiith century have been sent by Muḥammadan princes on the Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ to Mecca, to display their independence and claims to a place of honour at the ceremony. The camel which bears the maḥmal is not ridden but led by the bridle. It goes at the head of the caravan and is regarded as its sanctifying element. What extravagance the rivalry of princes led to is shown by the mention of a maḥmal adorned with much gold, pearls and jewels, which was ¶ sent in 721 (1321) from the ʿIrāḳ to Mecca ( Die Chroniken d…
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