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4. Historiography

(16,380 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 2, The Post-Classical Period of Islamic Literature from ca. 400/1000 until ca. 656/1258 previous chapter | German edition 1 Individual Biographies1 Just as the beginnings of Arabic historiography had been inspired by chronicles written in Middle Persian, it was again the literary taste of the Iranians that had a decisive influence on one of its most important offshoots. In the chancelleries of the states that arose upon the remains of the crumbling caliphat…

Chapter 1. Egypt

(10,261 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 3, From the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt Until the British Occupation previous chapter | German edition |⁷¹⁸ As a result of European influence, the stagnation of intellectual life which had dominated the Muslim world over the last couple of centuries gradually diminished. But even though the reforms of Muḥammad ʿAlī and his successors inundated the country with countless achievements of European civilization and the machine age, these matters initially had …

7. Al-Khansāʾ

(329 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|⁴⁰In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition The poetic genre of the marthiya seems to have first developed out of the inchoate wailings of women, which is also why its cultivation remained primarily in the hands of women. Among these, al-Khansāʾ attained the highest fame. Her real name was Tumāḍir (as in Abū Tamāḍir or Tamāḍur, Khiz. III, 403, 22ff.) and she belonged to the tribe of Sulaym, a branch of the Qays, which pitched its tents from the northern Hijaz all the way to Najd. W…

4. Philology

(15,178 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition On the beginnings of Arabic linguistics see Suppl. I, 155/8. |⁹⁶G. Flügel, Die grammatischen Schulen der Araber, Abh. f. d. C. d. Morg. II, 4, Leipzig 1862, Muḥammad Asʿad Ṭalas, Taʾrīkh al-naḥw, RAAD XIV 67/73, 227/31, 271/6.―On its dependence on Aristotelian logic see also Renan, Hist. gén. des langues sém., 4377ff., G. Hoffmann, de herm., 128 (cf. F. Praetorius, Zum Verständnis Sibawaihis, Halle 1895, 30), I. Guidi, Bollet. ital.…

3. Labīd and al-Aʿshā

(890 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition The Akhbār al-shuʿarāʾ al-mukhaḍramīn were compiled by Yaḥyā b. ʿAlī b. Yaḥyā b. Abī Manṣūr, and completed by his son Aḥmad (d. 327/938), |⁶⁵ see Yāqūt, Irshād I, 154, 13. ʿAlī b. Shākir Fahmī al-Mūstarī Ḥājjīzāde al-Gabīzādī (previously a muftī in Herzegovina), Ḥusn al-ṣaḥāba fī sharḥ ashʿār al-ṣaḥāba I, Istanbul 1324/5. 1. Labīd’s poems were not appreciated by everyone. Al-Aṣmaʿī (al-ʿAskarī, Ṣin. 128, 14, al-Marzubānī, Muwashshaḥ 71, 8) compared them to…

Chapter 8. North Africa

(14,027 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 1, From Mongol Rule Until the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in the Year 1517 previous chapter | German edition R. Basset, La littérature populaire arabe dans le Maghreb et chez les Maures d’Espagne in Mélanges Afric. et Or., Paris 1915, no. 2. |³³¹ M. Ben Cheneb, Étude sur les personnages mentionnés dans l’ Idjāza du cheikh ʿAbdalqādir al- Fāsī, Congr. int. des Or. d’Algiers 1907, III, 214/560. Joachim de Gonzalez, Essai chronologique sur les Musulmans célèbres de la ville d’Algiers, Algiers 1887. 1 Poetry and Rhymed Prose 1…

15. Geography

(3,757 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition M. Reinaud, Introduction générale à la géographie des orientaux, in Géographie dʼAboulféda, I, Paris 1848. M.J. de Goeje, Eenige mededeelingen over de arabische geographen, in Tijdschr. van het Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, 1874, 190–9. C. Schoy, The Geography of the Muslims in the Middle Ages, in The Geographical Review, publ. by the Amer. Geogr. Soc. of New York, 1924, 257–69. F. Gabrieli, Saggio dʼuna bibliografia geogra…

Chapter 1. Egypt and Syria

(37,840 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition Ad p. 303 Ad p. 304 1 Poetry and Rhymed Prose 1. ʿĀʾisha bint Yūsuf b. Aḥmad b. Nāṣir b. Khalīfa al-Bāʿūniyya al-Ṣāliḥiyya Umm ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, a sister of Muḥammad b. Yūsuf (p. 53, 18), was born in Damascus. From 919/1513 1 onward she lived in Cairo. In 922/1516 she returned to Damascus, then went to Aleppo and, having returned to Damascus once more, died in the same year. RAAD XII, 648 ff. (following…

Chapter 2. Al-Jazīra, Iraq, and Bahrain

(2,612 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition 1 Poetry 1a. In honour of Sulṭān al-Diyār al-Fārisiyya, Lord of Ḥuwayza and Zakiyya, Ayman b. ʿAbd al-Ḥusayn b. al-Malik al-Muḥsin ʿAbd al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd al-Muḥsin, Ḥasan b. ʿAlī al-Sanbāwī al-Mālikī al-Ḥimyarī composed: A qaṣīda, on which his son ʿAlī wrote a commentary in 963/1556 entitled Bughyat al-mufīd wa-bulghat al-mustafīd fī sharḥ al-Qaṣīd, Paris 3240, Cairo2 III, 36. 3. Shihāb al-…

13. Mathematics

(3,126 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|²¹⁵In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition L.P.E.A. Sédillot, Matériaux pour servir à lʼhistoire comparée des sciences mathématiques chez les Grecs et les Orientaux, 2 vols., Paris 1845/9. |²³⁹M. Cantor, Vorlesungen über Geschichte der Mathematik, vol. I, Leipzig 1880, 593/700. H.P.J. Renaud, Additions et corrections à Suter, Isis XVIII, 1932, 166/88. Aldo Mieli, La Science Arabe et son rôle dans lʼévolution scientifique mondiale, avec quelques addit…

3. Mesopotamia and Iraq

(42 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|⁴⁹⁷In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 3, From the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 until the Present Day previous chapter | German edition See Supplement next chapter Carl Brockelmann

4. Ḥassān b. Thābit

(457 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition His mother al-Furayʿa supposedly lived to convert to Islam (Ibn Saʿad, VIII, 271). As such, it is not very likely that he was 60 years old when the Prophet came to Medina (Ibn Hishām, Sīra 102, bottom). Instead, he was probably born around 590. The Prophet used to bring his wives to the safety of Ibn Thābit’s well-guarded fortress when he went on his campaigns (Ibn Saʿd, VIII, 27, 25). It is highly unlikely that the Prophet h…

2. Rhymed Prose and Stylistics

(2,954 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 2, The post-Classical Period of Islamic Literature, from ca. 400/1000 until ca. 656/1258 previous chapter | German edition 1. Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Manṣūr b. al-Qāriḥ al-Ḥalabī Dawkhala was born in Aleppo in 351/962. He was active as a teacher of adab in Syria and Egypt, and died after 421/1030 in Mosul. Yāqūt, Irsh. V, 424–7. Risāla to al-Maʿarrī, who answered it with his Risālat alghufrān (see above, p. 453), ed. M. Kurd ʿAlī in al-Muqtabas V (1910), 545–64, Rasāʾil al-bulaghāʾ, 2nd ed., 194–213. 1a. As well as in ep…

12. Mathematics

(3,753 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 2, The post-Classical Period of Islamic Literature, from ca. 400/1000 until ca. 656/1258 previous chapter | German edition 1. Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan (as such in Ibn al-Qifṭī, but in Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa it is ‘Muḥammad’) b. al-Ḥasan (al-Ḥusayn b. Ḥusayn) b. Haytham al-Baṣrī al-Miṣrī (the ‘Alhazen’ of the Latins), was born around 354/965, and died in 430/1039. |⁸⁵² Al-Bayhaqī, Tatimma 77, Ibn Sāʿid, Ṭab. 60 (transl. Blachère, 116), Ibn al-Qifṭī 165/1, Jamīl Bek, ʿUqūd al-jawhar I, 54/61, Izmirli Ismāʿīl Ḥaqqī in Ilāh. Fak. M…

17. Natural and Occult Sciences, Varia

(3,611 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition E.O. von Lippmann, Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Alchemie I, Berlin 1919, II, Berlin, 1931. E.J. Holmyard, Arabic Chemistry, Sc. Progress 17 (1922) 252–61, Nature 110, 573, Chemistry in Medieval Islam: Chemistry and Industry, 1923, 387ff., A History of Chemistry in Medieval Islam, Gibb Mem. 1936 (in press). 1. According to a legend, which Holmyard sought to vindicate, the founder of alchemy among the Arabs, Abū…

5. Belles Lettres in Prose

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|¹⁵⁸In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition Zakī Mubārak, al-Nathr al-fannī fi ʼl-qarn al-rābiʿ, C. 1934/1352; La Prose arabe au IVe siècle de lʼHégire (Xe s.), Paris 1931. Anīs Khūrī al-Muqaddasī, Taṣawwur al-asālīb al-nathriyya I, Beirut 1935. M. Kurd ʿAlī, Umarāʾ al-bayān, C. 1937. M. Sprengling, From Persian to Arabic, AJSL LVI, 175/224, 325/36. 1. ʿAbdallāh b. al-Muqaffaʿ, see Suppl. 233/7. Khiz. III, 459/60, Kraus, RSO XIV, 1/20. 1. Kalīla wa-Dimna, the fables of…

1. Poetry

(17,954 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 2, The post-Classical Period of Islamic Literature, from ca. 400/1000 until ca. 656/1258 previous chapter | German edition A Poets in Baghdad, Iraq, and the Jazīra An anonymous anthology of the poets of this period, dating from the year 592/1196, is Muntakhab al-qaṣīd wal-ashʿār li-fuḍalāʾ al-aʿṣār AS 4242 ( WZKM XXVI, 74). 1. Muʾayyad al-Dīn Abū Ismāʿīl al-Ḥasan (Ḥusayn) b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Iṣfahānī al-Ṭughrāʾī was born in Isfahan in 453/1061. He started his political career in Irbi…

Chapter 3. North Arabia

(11,721 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition 1 Poetry 1. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Zamzamī al-Shāfiʿī ʿIzz al-Dīn, muftī of the Shāfiʿīs in the Hijaz, d. 976/1568. Al-ʿAydarūsī, al-Nūr al-sāfir 320/4. 1. Dīwān additionally Cairo2 III, 131.—3. al-Qaṣaṣ al-ḥaqq fī madḥ khayr al-khalq, completed on 3 Dhu ’l-Ḥijja 942/25 May 1536 in Hijrat al-Jirāf near Ṣanʿāʾ, on which a takhmīs, entitled Qaṣab al-saqb fī takhmīs al-Q. al-ḥ. …

8. Sciences of the Qurʾān

(921 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition 1 The Reading of the Qurʾān With its imperfect script, the text of the Qurʾān as determined by ʿUthmān still gave rise to countless variant readings. |¹⁸⁹ This is why, in different capitals of the Muslim empire, especially in Mecca, Medina, Basra and Kufa, different schools arose, which transmitted styles of performance as regards readings and pronunciation that were based on the authority of…

6. Iran and Tūrān

(2,072 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition The flourishing of political power that Iran experienced under the Safavids naturally also positively contributed to literature. However, as was already the case in the previous period, the Arabic language was almost exclusively employed by scholars, especially Shīʿī theologians. It was only at the court of Shah ʿAbbās I (985–1038/158…
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