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Collenuccio, Pandolfo

(387 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
1444-1504. Italy.After graduating from the University of Padua in 1465, Pandolfo Collenuccio became an ambassador in the service of Costanzo I Sforza, Lord of Pesaro. As a result of a conflict with Giovanni Sforza, Collenuccio was imprisoned and exiled in 1488. However, his fame as a humanist earned him a quick rehabilitation, as well as the protection of the House of Gonzaga and Lorenzo de' Medici. After briefly serving as podest à of Florence and Mantua, Collenuccio became a counsellor to the duke of Ferrara, Ercole d'Este. The duke later appointed him ambassador…
Date: 2016-10-17

Chronique anonyme finissant en 1308

(157 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
14th century. France. Anonymous world chronicle in French, written in the first half of the century in Boulogne, narrating the history of the world from creation to 1308, with an emphasis on the history of northern France, Hainaut, and Flanders. Although it purports to cover universal history, the chronicle focuses on the political, military, religious and weather events that occurred after the millennium. The only surviving manuscripts of this chronicle are Vienna, ÖNB,  cod. 2607 (14th century) and Paris, BnF, fr. 1404, ( olim 7511.2; 15th century). Bratu, CristianBibliography…
Date: 2016-10-17

Le Canarien

(283 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
early 15th century. France. An account in French of the Castilian conquest of the Canary Islands in 1402, possibly written by the nephew of the leader of the expedition, Jean de Bethencourt, or by another member of the group. Bethencourt (ca 1362-1425) was a French explorer in the service of the Kingdom of Castile. Although Bethencourt sold his Parisian house in 1401 to finance the trip, it was only the support of Henry III of Castile that allowed him to embark on the expedition. Together with Ga…
Date: 2016-10-17

Chronique anonyme finissant en 1380

(86 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
15th century. France. Anonymous chronicle in French recording the history of France from its alleged Trojan origins up to 1380, while briefly mentioning major events from Western Europe. The sole surviving manuscript is located in Paris, BnF, fr. 5710 (formerly 10303.2.2or Cangé 119). The first folio of the manuscript is missing. This work is distinct from the Chronique anonyme a.o.c. usque ad a. 1380.Bratu, CristianBibliography Text Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France, XXI, 1855, 141. Literature RepFont 3, 339.
Date: 2016-10-17

Jean de Roye

(270 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
ca 1425 - early 1490s. France. Chamberlain and counsellor to Louis XI, secretary to the duke Jean II of Bourbon and author of a chronicle known as the Chronique scandaleuse. Born to a high-ranking Parisian family, he was appointed notary at the Châtelet in Paris at the beginning of Louis' reign. In 1465, he became secretary to Jean and warden of the Hôtel de Bourbon. His chronicle has been known since the 16th century as the Chronique scandaleuse due to his critical views of Louis XI's reign. There are two surviving manuscripts (Paris, BnF, fr. 2889 and 5062). The former starts in medias res with…
Date: 2016-10-17

Chronique dite Saintongeaise

(279 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
(Chronicle said to be in the Saintongeais dialect) 13th century. France. Anonymous military chronicle in French. Completed early in the century (1205-20) in southern France, it was probably written by a historian who had close ties to the collegiate church of Saint-Seurin at Bordeaux. As the title suggests, the dialect of the original (lost) text is a matter of conjecture, though it was probably southern; the work survives in adaptations in various other dialects (Poitevin, Occitan, Northern French).The first part, also known as Tote l'istoire de France (The entire history of France) ,…
Date: 2016-10-17

Cronaca Malatestiana

(373 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
[Chronicon Ariminense] 14th-15th century. Italy. Anonymous late medieval chronicle inItalian.The first part of the chronicle (sometimes listed separately as Cronaca Malatestiana del secolo XIV) narrates the history of the house of Malatesta, the ruling family of Rimini and various other areas of Romagna and the Marche, between 1295 and 1385.The 15th-century sequel ( Cronaca Malatestiana del secolo XV), most probably written by a different scribe, covers the years 1416-52.The chronicle emphasizes some seminal figures in the Malatesta family, from the founding con…
Date: 2016-10-17

Chroniques de l'hostal d'Armanyach

(196 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
14th-century. France. A lost chronicle in French or Occitan, about which very little is known. It most probably narrated the history of the house of Armagnac. The only evidence about this text comes from two letters in Catalan written in April 1374 by Martha of Armagnac, daughter of Jean I of Armagnac and wife of John I of Aragon. Martha sent the letters to her brother Bernard of Armagnac, and to a certain Sanç de la Fitola, asking both addressees to send her totes les canoniques de l'hostal d'Armanyach (all the chronicles of the house of Armagnac). The two letters are also recorde…
Date: 2016-10-17

Riccoboni, Bartolomea

(447 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
ca 1369-1440. Italy. Dominican nun at the convent of Corpus Domini in Venice, and author of a convent chronicle and a necrology.Together with twenty-six other women, Bartolomea Riccoboni entered the Dominican convent of Corpus Domini in Venice (by Capo de Zirada) in 1394, at the age of 25. She then became the convent chronicler, and around 1415 she started writing the Cronaca del Corpus Domini, which narrates the history of the convent. Written in Venetian dialect, the chronicle is divided into eighteen chapters, eleven of which focus on the history of Corpu…
Date: 2016-10-17

Chronique anonyme ab orbe condito usque ad annum 1380

(160 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
15th century. France. Anonymous chronicle in French, with brief Latin inserts. The chronicle is presented in the prologue as a compilation of translated excerpts from various Latin texts. Research has established that the compiler relied primarily on the Grandes Chroniques de France, as well as the works of Noël de Fribois and Guillaume de Nangis. Although the prologue mentions that the chronicle will cover the history of France from its alleged Trojan roots to Louis XI, the last part of the extant manuscript evokes the death of Charle…
Date: 2016-10-17

Dardel, Jean

(275 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
d. 1384. France, Egypt etc. Friar Minor of the French Franciscan order, adviser and confessor to King Leo V of Armenia, and chronicler of Armenia. Dardel was born in Estampes at an unknown date and became a Franciscan towards the mid-14th century. In 1375, he joined other pilgrims on the way to Jerusalem and Mount Sinai. In Cairo, he met Leo, who had been captured by the Emir of Aleppo, and soon became his friend, advisor, confessor, secretary and ambassador. Leo sent him to various European courts to intercede for his liberty and was…
Date: 2016-10-17

Chronique du president Fauchet

(283 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
[Chronique de France allant jusqu'au règne de Charles VI] 15th century. France. Anonymous chronicle in French, narrating the history of France from the mythical roots up to the reign of Charles VI, briefly mentioning major events from Western Europe and the Middle East. The author of the chronicle relied on various sources of inspiration, including the Grandes Chroniques de France and medieval romances.The incipit of the original text is missing. There are two manuscripts of this chronicle, Vatican, BAV, reg, lat. 749, and Paris, BnF, fr. 5003 ( olim 9656.5.5.A vel 1016 Colbert). The…
Date: 2016-10-17

Landulf of Milan

(303 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
[Landulfus Senior] late 11th century. Northern Italy. Landulf of Milan, also known as Landulfus Senior, should not be confused with Landulf of San Paolo (or Landulfus Junior). Politically speaking, Landulf of Milan was quite the opposite of Landulf Junior, since he was a married priest who argued vehemently against the Gregorian Reform and the local Patarenes, a religious group opposed to marriage and simony among the clergy to which the younger Landulf had sympathies.Landulf of Milan authored a four-part history of Milan, known as Mediolanensis historiae libri quatuor. His work f…
Date: 2016-10-17

Nerli, Antonio

(255 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
d. ca 1420. Northern Italy. Prelate and author of a short chronicle on the Benedictine monastery of Sant'Andrea in Mantua.Antonio Nerli was born into an aristocratic family from Siena. We first hear of him as archpriest and, from 1393, prior of the cathedral of Sant'Andrea in Mantua. In 1407, Francesco Gonzaga appointed him head of the Benedictine abbey of San Benedetto Polirone, where he started writing the history of the monastery of Sant'Andrea.After a period of imprisonment in Brescia, he left for Rome where he became abbot of San Lorenzo extra muros.He probably died in Rome aroun…
Date: 2016-10-17

Valla, Lorenzo

(839 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
1405/6-57. Italy. Lorenzo Valla was born in Rome into a family with close ties to the papal curia. During his youth, Valla was in contact with humanists and papal secretaries such as Leonardo Bruni and Poggio Bracciolini. In 1431, Valla entered the priesthood with high hopes of becoming a papal secretary himself, but his plans did not materialize immediately. He taught rhetoric in Piacenza, but he had to leave again in 1433 because of a quarrel with local jurists. Two years later, Val…
Date: 2016-10-17

Gilbertus Romanus

(254 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
13th century. Italy. Very little is known about Gilbertus' biography, except that he was probably a native of Italy and almost certainly was active in Rome. The relationship between him and a contemporary Gilbertus Romanus from England (prior of Nuneaton in Warwickshire) remains uncertain, but it is very likely that they were two different persons.Gilbertus Romanus was the author of the Chronicon pontificum et imperatorum romanorum, which records all the emperors and popes from Christ to the years 1220/21. The chronicle gives a very short description for each…
Date: 2016-10-17

Annales Rotomagenses

(263 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
(Annals of Rouen) late 11th century. France. Latin universal history with special emphasis on Normandy and England, probably written in Rouen. The Annales Rotomagenses were greatly indebted to the Annales de Saint-Bénigne de Dijon, possibly transported to Normandy by William of Volpiano, who was abbot of St. Bénigne before becoming abbot of Fécamp. The original compilation, running to the end of the 11th century, is now lost, but expanded versions survive. Those closest to the original can be found in three 12th-century (or early 13th-century) continuations from southern Engla…
Date: 2016-10-17

Villani, Matteo

(547 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
d. 1363. Italy. Italian historian, brother of Giovanni Villani, whose chronicle he continued after his death. Giovanni had died of bubonic plague, an epidemic which he mentioned in his chronicle: "And many lands and cities were made desolate. And this plague lasted till _____". Unfortunately, he died in 1348 and did not have a chance to fill in the blank. After 1348, Matteo took it upon himself to continue his brother's work. Matteo's chronicle was in turn continued by his son, Filippo Villani.Like Giovanni, Matteo was born into a well-to-do Florentine merchant family as the …
Date: 2016-10-17

Calco, Tristano

(408 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
1462-1515/16. Italy. Tristano Calco was born into an aristocratic family which originated from the area around Como and had settled in Milan around the 1350s. In 1478, he became an archivist for the library of the house of Sforza in Pavia.His first work was the Nuptiae Mediolanensium ducum (Weddings of the Dukes of Milan), dedicated to Ludovico Sforza and written in 1489 on the occasion of the wedding between Gian Galeazzo Sforza and Isabella of Aragon (Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, ms. H 55 sup). His second work, the Nuptiae Mediolanensium et Estensium principum (Weddings of the Pr…
Date: 2016-10-17

Readers and listeners

(2,357 words)

Author(s): Bratu, Cristian
Literacy and OralityThe 20th century has brought us a profound awareness of the fundamental role that voice and performance played in the composition, transmission, and reception of ancient and medieval texts. The first impulse for the study of what would later be called "orality" was given by the research of Antoine Meillet (1923) and Milman Parry (1930, 1933, 1971) on the presence of formulae in various ancient texts, most notably Homeric epic. Meillet and Parry argued that Homer's work was "entirely composed of formulae handed down from poet to poet" (Meillet 1923). These formulae…
Date: 2016-12-06
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