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Varus

(229 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Common Roman cognomen, initially an individual epithet ('bow-legged', cf. Plin. HN 11,254). Recorded for Alfenus [3; 5], Aternius, Licinius [I 46-47], Quinctilius [I 1-3; II 7-8], Vibius. The best known bearer was P. Quinctilius [II 7] V. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 149 Id., FCIR, 271 Kajanto, Cognomina, 242. [German version] [2] Sophist from Perge, c. 150 (Οὔαρος/ Oúaros). Sophist from Perge, c. AD 150, from a noble family, presumably the Plancii (Plancius; cf. [1. 22; 2]). Son of one Callic…

Hadrianus

(554 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Ἁδριανός; Hadrianós) [1]. [German version] [1] Rhetor Sophist from Tyre, at 18 years of age a favourite pupil of  Herodes Atticus (Philostr. VS 2,10,585-586). With  Flavius Boethus (also from Phoenicia) he attended the anatomy lectures of  Galen in Rome in AD 162-166 (Gal. 14,627; 629 Kuhn). He may perhaps have been the target of mockery in Lucian's Pseudologístēs [1]. He taught in Ephesus (Philostr. VS 2,23,605) and (163-169) [2] honoured his patron there, the consular Cn.  Claudius [II 64] Severus, with a statue and a poem [3; 4]. From 176 at the l…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Marcus

(4,055 words)

Author(s): Wick, Peter (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Μάρκος; Márkos). I. Greek [German version] [I 1] The Evangelist, [1] (Lat. Marcus). The author of the second Gospel (Mk) could be a missionary (Iohannes) M. who is often mentioned in the NT especially in close association with Paulus (Acts 12:12:25; Phm 24 among others) (for example, for the first time Papias around AD 130, see Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3,39,15). The fact that evidence of a closeness to Paul's theology can barely be found [3] is an argument against this identification, while the straightforwardn…

Moeragenes

(135 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Μοιραγένης; Moiragénēs). Author of ‘Memories of the Magus and Philosopher Apollonius of Tyana (Τὰ Ἀπολλωνίου τοῦ Τυανέως μάγου καὶ φιλοσόφου ἀπομνημονεύματα: Orig. contra Celsum 6,41). The title and size (4 volumes according to Philostr. Ap. 1,3, who bluntly dismisses M. as ignorant regarding Apollonius [14]) suggest that M. (cf. Apollonius of Tyana, epist. 16,17) was not presenting Apollonius in an unfavourable light as a ‘charlatan’ ( góēs), but favourably as a ‘magus’ ( mágos). He is  possibly the M. mentioned in Plut. Symp. 671c and/or the M. of IG 22 6495, a con…

Hippodromos

(465 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
In Greek architecture hippodromos (ἱππόδρομος; hippódromos) denotes the racetrack for horses, which was a customary facility in the polis and the sanctuaries from the early 7th cent. (introduction of chariot races in Olympia in 680 BC). In archaic times the hippodromos was a first-rate place of aristocratic representation, where wealth could be demonstrated visibly before the public through the ownership and regular use of pure-bred race horses. The u-shaped facilities were surrounded by ranks for spectators and furnished with a star…

Hedyla

(107 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἡδύλη; Hēdýlē). According to Ath. 297a, the daughter of the Attic female iambic Moschine and the mother of  Hedylus. This means that she wrote in the early 3rd cent. BC [1]. Athenaeus allocates to H. five elegiac verses (and one word of a sixth) that stem from a poem with the title Skýlla. In it  Glaucus [2] brings his beloved  Scylla maritime presents, presumably before her monstrous metamorphosis, in Sicily or southern Italy (cf. Ov. Met. 13, 904ff.; Hyg. Fab. 199). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography 1 GA I,2, 289. SH 456 U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Lesefrüchte, in:…

Heliodorus

(2,533 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
(Ἡλιόδωρος; Heliódōros). [German version] [1] Chancellor under Seleucus IV, 2nd cent. BC Son of Aeschylus of Antioch on the Orontes, was educated with Seleucus IV and was a courtier (τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλήν) and well-respected chancellor (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων τεταγμένος) under him in 187-175 BC (IG XI 4,1112-1114, or OGIS 247; App. Syr. 45). When financial difficulties after the defeat of Seleucus' father Antiochus III against the Romans (190/188), in conjunction with internal Jewish intrigues, had led to special…

Damianus

(139 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Δαμιανός; Damianós). [German version] T. Flavius Damianus. Sophist from Ephesus Sophist from Ephesus, where he financed public and private buildings, among them a dining-hall and stoaí the length of one stadion (Philostr. VS 2,23). In three discussions before his death at the age of 70 ( c. AD 210?) he gave his student Philostratus the material for the biography of his teachers Aelius Aristides and Hadrianus of Tyre. As γραμματεύς ( grammateús) he housed Roman troops returning from the Parthian Wars in 166/7 (IK 17.1,3080) and in 170/1 honoured the proconsul Asiae Nonius Macrinus wit…

Archilochus

(1,656 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἀρχίλοχος; Archílochos) From Paros and Thasos, one of the earliest known poets of elegiac, iambic and epodic poetry. [German version] A. Life and Poetry A., son of Telesicles, who guided a Parian colony in 675 BC to Thasos [1], wrote poetry ca. 670-640 [2; 3], cf. the mention of Gyges (died c. 652) as exemplum in 19W (= IEG) and the misfortune of the city of Magnesia in 20W (probably its destruction by Treres, cf. Callinus 5W in Strabon, 14,1,40). The eclipse of the sun in 122W possibly may been have that of 6th April 648. Elegies: amongst the sparse remnants, two poems give comfort on t…

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…

Scopelianus

(132 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Σκοπελιανός; Skopelianós). Sophist from Clazomenae, active c. 80-115 AD. According to Philostr. VS 1,21,514, our only source, S. was taught by Nicetes [2], presumably in Smyrna where S. too taught (his pupils included Polemon) and declaimed. Renowned especially for subjects drawn from the Persian Wars, S. had a vigorous style (apparent also in his epic Γιγαντία ( Gigantía), criticised as 'dithyrambic'. Like his ancestors he was high priest of the province of Asia (ἀρχιερεύς/ archiereús). Often an envoy to emperors, c. 92 AD he successfully opposed Domitian's…

Pigres

(93 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Πίγρης; Pígrēs). Poet from Halicarnassus, son (Plut. Mor. 873f) or brother (Suda π 1551) of Artemisia [1], c. 480 BC (provided the person was not invented; on the Carian name cf. Hdt. 7,98; Syll.3 46,28). Plutarch (if this is not an interpolation [1]) ascribes the Batrachomyomachía to P.; the Suda adds the Margítes and an Iliás, in which P. follows each hexameter in Homer with a pentameter. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography 1 R. Peppmüller, Review of A. Ludwich, Der Karer P. und sein Tierepos Batrachomachia, 1896, in: PhW 21, 1901, 673-679.

Callinicus

(455 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Καλλίν(ε)ικος; Kallín(e)ikos: ‘The noble victor’). [German version] [1] Epithet of Heracles Epithet of  Heracles (Eur. Herc. 582; Aristid. Or. 40.15; OGIS 53; Iscrizioni di Cos ED 180,28ff.; SEG 28.616), according to Archil. fr. 324 IEG in a hymn used as a victory song in Olympia (Pind. Ol. 9,1ff. with schol.; according to schol. Aristoph. Av. 1764 composed in Paros: cf. IG XII5, 234); probably first used for Heracles as a victorious warrior (cf. the aetiologic myth in Apollod. 2.135), later often in an apotropaic epigram (Preger, Inscr. Graecae metricae 213; EpGr 1138). Willi, Andrea…

Aspasius

(588 words)

Author(s): Sharples, Robert (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] Commentator on Aristotle Commentator on Aristotle, 1st half of the 2nd cent. AD; teacher of  Herminus. His works were read in the school of Plotinus (Porph. Vita Plotini 14). A.' commentary on the ‘Nicomachean Ethics [1] is the earliest surviving extended commentary on an Aristotelian text, and influenced the treatment of the ‘common books’ 5-7 as Nicomachean; although the theory in [2. 29-36] that he was responsible for the inclusion of these books has been questioned by the ‘Eud…

Aristocles

(543 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἀριστοκλῆς; Aristoklês). [German version] [1] of Messene Peripatetic philosopher of the early imperial era Peripatetic philosopher of the early imperial era. His main work, Περὶ φιλοσοφίας in 10 books, contained a critical summary of the teachings of all philosophical schools; extracts in Euseb. Praep. evang. 14-15. Other teachings attributed to him until recently belong to  Aristotle of Mytilene. Because of the confusion with the latter, A. was also thought to have been a teacher of Alexander of Aphrodisias…

Theodotus

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Et al.
(Θεόδοτος; Theódotos). [German version] [1] Greek architect, c.370 BC Mentioned several times in the construction records for the temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus as its architect; his origins are as unknown as his subsequent whereabouts. T.’ salary during the project amounted to 365 drachmae per year, together with further payments of unknown object. It is uncertain whether he is the same person as the sculptor T. named in IG IV2 102 (B 1 line 97) as having, for 2,340 drachmae, fashioned the acroteria for the pediment; it is possible that the name T. has been in…

Philostratus

(3,230 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος/ Philóstratos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, son of Dionysius of Colonus, known from inscriptions (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) and mentions by Demosthenes [2]. In the 90s, while still a young man, he provided lodging for the lover of his friend Lysias (Dem. Or. 59,22f.); in 366/5, he was among the accusers of Chabrias in the Oropus trial; later he gained a victory as choregos with a choir of boys at the Dionysia (Dem. Or. 21,64); in 342, he was trierarch; between 343 and 340, he testified as a witness in t…

Second Sophistic

(2,887 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] I. Concept A term often used by modern scholarship, particularly for the Greek culture (esp. literary culture) during the Roman Empire between AD 60 and AD 230 when 'Sophistic declamation' (μελέτη/melétē) became one of the most prestigious cultural activities in the Greek world. Philostratus (Philostr.VS 1 praefatio 481, cf. 1,18,507) first uses (and, it seems, coined) the term 'Second Sophistic' to distinguish the declamatory conventions that he claims were introduced by Aeschines ( i.e., for example, the adoption of 'personae' of oligarchs, tyrants o…

Aristides

(3,776 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ἀριστείδης; Aristeídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician and srategos (beginning of the 5th cent. BC) Of Athens, son of Lysimachus. He was one of the most prominent politicians and strategoi of Athens at the time of the Persian Wars. In the battle of Marathon, he probably served as a strategos. In 489/488 BC, he was the eponymous archon (Plut. Aristides 1,2, cf. IG I3 1031). In 482 BC, he was ostrazised ( Ostraka) (Hdt. 8,79; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 22,7; Plut. Aristides 7,1 ff.). His rivalry with  Themistocles, documented already in Herodotus (8,79), …
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