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Reservation, Expressions of

(2,979 words)

Author(s): Bliboim, Rivka
Reservation involves the rejection, usually partially, of a given message. There are many lexical means of expressing reservation, particularly concerning a message’s certainty. Thus, when the addressee is not certain, or does not want to be perceived as being certain, of a given message’s truth-value, he may use an expression such as -קרוב לוודאי ש qarov le-vaday še- ‘it is almost certain that’, -סביר להניח ש savir lehaniax̱ še- ‘it is reasonable to suppose that’, מן הסתם min ha-stam ‘probably’, -נראה ש nirʾe še- ‘it seems that’, -ייתכן ש yitaxen še- ‘it is possible that’, and so on. In thi…

Conjunctions, Semantic Classification

(5,806 words)

Author(s): Bliboim, Rivka
Conjunctions connect words, clauses, and sentences in order to express varied semantic relationships. The term as used here includes words that precede (subordinate) clauses, (coordinated) sentences, and nouns, and connect to verbal or nominal predicates (coordinating conjunctions can also occur before other parts of the sentence), for example: הוא נסע לעיר הרחוקה למרות הסכנה hu nasaʿ la-ʿir ha-rex̱oqa lamrot ha-sakana ‘he traveled to the distant city despite the danger’ (before a noun); הוא נסע לעיר הרחוקה אף על פי שמסוכן שם hu nasaʿ la-ʿir ha-rex̱oqa ʾaf ʿal pi še- mesukan šam ‘he …

Result Clause: Modern Hebrew

(1,417 words)

Author(s): Bliboim, Rivka
Cause and result clauses (Causal Constructions) are one entity. They are distinguished only by focus and by which parts of the sentence contain new versus old information: (1) לא יצאנו לטיול כי ירד גשם lo yaṣanu la-ṭiyul ki yarad gešem ‘we did not go on the trip because it was raining’ (2) ירד גשם ולכן לא יצאנו לטיול yarad gešem ve-la-xen lo yaṣanu la-ṭiyul ‘it was raining and therefore we did not go on the trip’. In the first sentence the new information is the cause (the rain), while in the second sentence, the result construction, the new information is the effect (n…

Adversative: Modern Hebrew

(2,072 words)

Author(s): Bliboim, Rivka
Adversative conjunctions have been described by various grammarians as reflecting such semantic relations as disagreement, reservation, or agreement with the contrary. The adversative particles to be discussed in the present entry mostly express a contrast between two sentence parts, e.g., הוא אינו ירושלמי אלא תל אביבי hu ʾeno yerušalmi ʾela tel ʾavivi ‘He is not from Jerusalem, but from Tel-Aviv’, or two clauses, e.g., החורף שעבר היה גשום ואילו החורף הנוכחי שחון ha-x̱oref še-ʿavar haya gašum ve-ʾilu ha-x̱oref ha-noxex̱i šax̱un ‘Last winter was rainy, whereas this winter i…

Causal Constructions

(4,575 words)

Author(s): Bliboim, Rivka
Causal adverbials provide the reason for an action, an event, or a situation. Such an adverbial may consist of a word, a phrase, or a clause. In this entry we present the typical causal conjunctions used in Hebrew causal adverbials, whether words, phrases, or clauses. A typical simple sentence with a clausal adverbial is לא יצאנו לטיול בגלל הגשם lo yaṣanu la-ṭiyul biglal ha-gešem ‘we did not go for a walk because of the rain’; the following is an example of a complex sentence with a causal subordinate clause: מכיוון שירד גשם לא יצאנו לטיול mi-kevan še-yarad gešem lo yaṣanu la-ṭiyul ‘because it…