Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Björkman, W." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Björkman, W." )' returned 49 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Tulband

(9,444 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, the common Turkish pronunciation of Persian Dulband , a sash or wrapper for the head, thence turban, the typical form of traditional headdress in the eastern Islamic lands, the Iranian world, and the Muslim and Sikh parts of the Indian subcontinent. The turban of English, French and German, the turbante of Spanish and Italian, etc., come via forms like tulband , tulbant ; in French and Italian the word is attested from the later 15th century, and in English from the mid-16th century. See Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson . A glossary of Anglo-Indian words and phrases 2, London 1903, 943-4. It s…

Lit̲h̲ām

(1,287 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.) (sometimes also pronounced lifām ), the mouth-veil, is a piece of material with which the Bedouins concealed the lower part of the face, the mouth and sometimes also part of the nose (see the com…

Ḳaṭʿ

(1,761 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a), cutting off. The Arabie verb ḳaṭaʿa has been very widely used in a variety of literal and metaphorical senses; this diversity is often of interest for both religious and cultural history. The infinitive ḳaṭʿ does not occur in the Ḳurʾān, but the finite verb occurs both in the literal and in a rather metaphorical sense: Sūra V, 42 (38): “Cut off the hands of the thief and the female thief”—the well-known prescription which has passed into fiḳh and is sometimes briefly designated as

Refīʿī

(501 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, an Ottoman poet and Ḥurūfī [see Ḥurūfiyya ]. Of Refīʿī’s life we only have a few hints from himself; the Ottoman biographers and historians do not seem to mention him at all. He himself describes how in his youth he studied many branches of knowledge but did not know what he should believe, and how sometimes he turned to the Sunna, sometimes to philosophy and sometimes to materialism. He often travelled a great distance to visit a particular scholar but always was disappointed. The poet Nesīmī [ q.v.] was the first to teach him the grace of God and the truth, and ordered him to teach this truth in his turn to the people of Rūm, and for this purpose he had to speak in Turkish. He therefore wrote his Bes̲h̲āret-nāme , “the message of joy”, which he finished on the first Friday of Ramaḍān 811/18 January 1409. This work is not yet printed; it is quite short and written in the same metre as ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳ-pas̲h̲a’s G̲h̲arīb-nāme , a

Sirwāl

(2,063 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), trousers. Trousers are not originally an Arab garment but were introduced, probably from Persia. From quite early times, other people have copied the thing and the name from the Persians and it almost looks as if Persia were the original home of trousers (cf. Nöldeke, Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden , 136, n. 3). The Greek σαράβαρα or σαρβαλλα, Latin sarabala (perhaps also Aramaic sarbālīn , Daniel, iii, 21; cf. Syriac s̲h̲arbālīn ) and the Arabic sirwāl are all derived from old Persian zārawāro , the modern Persian s̲h̲alwār

Mans̲h̲ūr

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.) means literally “spread out” (as in Ḳurʾān, XVII, 14, and LII,3: opposite, maṭwī “folded”), or “not sealed” (opposite, mak̲h̲tūm ) hence it comes to mean a certificate, an edict, a diploma of appointment, and particularly, a patent granting an appanage (pl. manās̲h̲īr ). In Egypt in the early Arab period, mans̲h̲ūr seems …

Ḳalansuwa

(844 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, Ḳulansiya (a), the name for a cap worn by men either under the turban proper or alone on the head. The word, from which verbal forms are derived as denominative verbs, is apparently of foreign origin; while it used to be commonly connected with the Latin calautica (for which, however, the form calantica is difficult to quote and besides, it means a headcloth for women), Fraenkel wished to derive it through the Aramaic . w. l. ś (cf. Arabic ḳāli , ḳālis , Dozy, Supplément, ii, 395) from κῶνος ( conus ). The Arab grammarians and lexicographers found in the manifold formation of the broken plural and the diminutive a reason for using ḳalansuwa as a paradigm for substantives of more than three radicals with such peculiarities.…

Kāfir

(1,956 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), originally “obliterating, covering”, then, “concealingbenefits received” = “ungrateful”; this meaning is found even in the old Arab poetry and in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra XXVI, 18. In the Ḳurʾān the word is used with reference to God: “concealing God’s blessings” = “ungrateful to God”, see Sūra XVI, 57 and XXX, 33: “That they are ungrateful for our gifts”; cf. also Sūra XVI, 85. The next development— probably under the influence of the Syriac and Aramaic where the corresponding development took pl…

Aḥmad Rāsim

(964 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, Turkish writer, b. 1864 in Sari̊güzel or Sari̊gez, a quarter of Fātiḥ, Istanbul, d. 21 Sept. 1932 in the island of Heybeliada and buried there. In early life he lost his father Bahā al-Dīn, who belonged to the family of Mentes̲h̲-og̲h̲lu from Cyprus, and was brought up by his mother. …

Ḳawuḳlu

(677 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, Turkish “the man with the Ḳavuḳ ”, a character of the Turkish Orta oyunu theatre. Turkish ḳavuḳ indicates a rather high, variously-shaped cap, with a headband, ṣari̊ḳ , wound round it (Ağakay, Türkçe sözlük: sarık sarılan başlık ). Such caps of varying shape and colour according to rank were worn by officers of the Janissaries (cf. Maḥmūd S̲h̲ewket, ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ tes̲h̲kīlāt ve ḳiyāfet-i ʿaskeriyyesi , …

Tād̲j̲

(2,152 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), crown, a Persian loanword in Arabic going back to the Old Persian *

Mans̲h̲ūr

(1,576 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.) means literally “spread out” (as in the Ḳurʾān xvii. 14 and lii. 3; opposite maṭwī “folded”), or not sealed (opposite mak̲h̲tūm) hence means a certificate, an edict, a diploma of appointment, and particularly a patent granting an appanage. In Egypt in the early Arab period mans̲h̲ūr seems to be a name for the passes which the government compelled the fellāḥīn to have in order to check the flight of colonists from the land, which threatened to become overwhelming ( Ḏj̲āliya, cf. above, ii., p. 14a and 994a). In any case in the Führer durch die Ausstellung (Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer), N°. 6…

Maks

(1,527 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, toll, customs duty, is a loanword in Arabic and goes back to the Aramaic maksā , cf. Hebrew mekes and Assyr. miksu ; from it is formed a verb m-k-s I, II, III and makkās , the collector of customs. According to the Arabic tradition preserved in Ibn Sīda, even in the D̲j̲āhiliyya there were marketdues called maks , so that the word must have entered Arabic very early. It is found in Arabic papyri towards the end of the 1st century A.H. C. H. Becker dealt with the history of the maks, especially in Egypt, and we follow him here. The old law books use maks in the sense of ʿus̲h̲r , the…

Rewānī

(770 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, an Ottoman poet. His real name was Ilyās or S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ and he belonged to Adrianople. He is said to have taken his pen-name of Rewānī from the river Tand̲j̲a which flowed past ( rewān) his garden. He entered the service of Sulṭān Bāyazīd II (1481—1512) in Stambul and was sent by him as administrator of the ṣurre, the annual sum for the poor of Mecca and Medīna, to the holy cities to distribute the money. He embezzled a part of it however and on the accusation of the Meccans his salary was stopped; a malady of the eyes, which then affected Rewānī, w…

Ḳalansuwa

(803 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, Ḳulansiya (a.), the name for a cap which was worn by men either under the turban proper or alone on the head. The word, from which verbal forms are derived as denominative verbs, is apparently of foreign origin; while it used to be commonly connected with the Latin calautica, for which, however, the form calantica is difficult to quote — and besides it means a head-cloth for women —, Fraenkel wishes to derive it through the Aramaic (cf. Arabic ḳāliṣ, ḳālis, Dozy, Supplément ii., 395) from κῶνοΣ ( conus). The Arab grammarians and lexicographers have found in the manifold formation …

Sunbulzāde Wehbī

(1,243 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, a Turkish poet and scholar of the latter half of the eighteenth century. Meḥmed b. Rās̲h̲id b. Meḥmed Efendi Wehbī was born in Marʿas̲h̲ in the province of Aleppo; he belonged to the prominent local family of Sunbulzāde, which had already produced several ¶ muftīs including the grandfather of our poet, Meḥmed, muftī in Marʿas̲h̲ and author of several works including the S̲h̲ērḥ al-As̲h̲bāh al-musammā bi-Tawfīḳi ’llāh, Nūr al-ʿ-Ain and Kitāb al-Tanzīhāt. His father Rās̲h̲id also was a learned man and collaborated in Aleppo with the poet Saiyid Wehbī. As one of the …

Tād̲j̲

(2,041 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), Crown. A Persian loanword in Arabie going back to the Old Persian * tag; cf. Armenian ʿtag, Aramaic taga. From it are formed in Arabic the broken plural tīd̲j̲ān and the corresponding verb t-w-d̲j̲ II “to crown”, V “to be crowned”, and tāʾid̲j̲, “crowned” (Horn, Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologic, Strassburg 1893, p. 81; Siddiqi, Studien über die per she hen Fremdwörter im klassischen Arabisch, Göttingen 1919, p. 74, 84; Fraenkel, Die aramāischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen, Ley den 1886, p. 62). Like the name, the thing itself comes from old Persia. The form o…

Maks

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, toll, customs duty, is a loanword in Arabic and goes back to the Aramaic maksā, cf. Hebrew mekes and Assyr. miksu; from it is formed a verb m-k-s I, II, III and makkās, the collector of customs. According to the Arabic tradition preserved in Ibn Sīda even in the Ḏj̲āhilīya there were market-dues called maks so that the word must have entered Arabic very early. It is found in Arabic papyri towards the end of the first century a. h. Becker has dealt with the history of the maks, especially in Egypt, and we follow him here. The old law books use maks in the sense of ʿus̲h̲r, the tenth levied by the mer…

Lit̲h̲ām

(1,095 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.) (sometimes also pronounced lifām), the mouth-veil, is a piece of material with which the Beduins concealed the lower part of the face, the mouth and sometimes also part of the nose (see the commentary on Ḥarīrī, ed. de Sacy, Paris 1821, p. 374, 2). It served the practical purpose of protecting the organs of respiration from heat and cold as well as against the penetration of dust (cf. Ḏh̲u ’l-Rumma, N°. 5, 43, also N°. 39, 24, and 73, 16; and the commentaries on Mutanabbī, p. 464, 27 and Ḥarīrī…
▲   Back to top   ▲