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Theophane

(50 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Θεοφάνη; Theophánē). Beautiful and desired daughter of Bisaltes [2], turned by Poseidon into a sheep with which he in the form of a ram fathers the golden ram which carries Phrixus and Helle over the sea (Hyg. Fab. 3; 188; Ov. Met. 6,117). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)

Salmacis

(174 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαλμακίς/ Salmakís, Lat. Salmacis). Name of a Greek nymph and a spring in Caria (Cares, Caria) not far from Halicarnassus; the city had a homonymous suburb with a sanctuary to Hermaphroditus. The name is probably derived from a local language of Asia Minor. The myth of S. is associated with a late and secondary version of the legend of Hermaphroditus: S. falls in love with the son of Hermes and Aphrodite (for the first time in this form in Diod. Sic. 4,6). He, however, resists her c…

Vindemitor

(48 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] Name of a satyr, a catamite of Dionysus, after he became a star (formerly Ampelus [4]; Ov. Fast. 3,407 f.). V. has been since the time of Augustus the usual Latin translation of the star Protrygeter (Προτρυγητήρ; Protrygētḗr) (modern: ε Virginis; Vindemiatrix). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)

Thoon

(127 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Θόων; Thóōn). Name, appearing several times in Greek epics and myths: [German version] [1] Trojan, son of Phaenops Trojan, son of Phaenops [2] and brother of Phorcys [2] and Xanthus, killed by Diomedes [1] (Hom. Il. 5,152). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Trojan killed by Odysseus Trojan, killed by Odysseus (Hom. Il. 11,422). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Antilochus Trojan, killed by Antilochus (Hom. Il. 12,140; 13,545). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [4] Phaeacian One of the Phaeaces (Hom. Od. 8,113). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) …

Pyraechmes

(137 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Πυραίχμης/ Pyraíchmēs). Commander of the Paeonians (Paeones) in the Trojan War; he leads them from Amydon to the aid of his allies the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,848-850, Apollod. Epit. 3,34). He kills Eudorus [1] (Timolaus FHG 4,521) and is then killed by Patroclus [1]. P. was buried in Troy (tomb epigraph Aristot. Peplos 47). The fact that Asteropaeus, the grandson of the river god Axius, is also named as the leader of the Paeonians (Hom. Il. 21,140 f.; 21,154-160), but is not mentioned in the catalogue of Trojans - although he plays a disproportionately larger role in the Iliad -…

Rhadine and Leontichus

(169 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥαδίνη, Λεόντιχος; Rhadínē, Leóntichos). Unfortunate pair of lovers in a Greek folk legend, which according to our main source, Str. 8,3,20, was treated by Stesichorus (PMGF Spur. 278 Davies). As the only discussion there is of παῖδες Σάμιοι/ paîdes Sámioi ('children of Samos'), we cannot decide with certainty where the plot is set. Strabo places the legend in Triphylian Samos, but Pausanias knows of a gravestone of the lovers- a place of pilgrimage for unhappy lovers - on the Ionian island of Samos, on the route from…

Syleus

(96 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Συλεύς; Syleús). Son of Poseidon, who forces passing strangers in Aulis to dig his vineyards. Heracles [1], in the service of queen Omphale of Lydia, punishes him by uprooting his vines and killing him and his daughter Xenodoce (Apollod. 2,132; Diod. Sic. 4,31; Tzetz. Chil. 2,429-435). There is a deviating version in a satyr play by Euripides (TGF2 575), in which Heracles - not S., who has purchased him as a slave - appears as the actual monster (other variants: Speusippus, Epistolae Socraticorum 30; Konon FGrH 26 F 1,17). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)

Staphylus

(175 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Στάφυλος/ Stáphylos from σταφυλή/ staphylḗ, 'grape'; Σταφυλίτης/ Staphylítēs and Εὐστάφυλος/ Eustáphylos are epithets of Dionysus). [German version] [1] Son of Dionysus and Ariadne Son of Dionysus and Ariadne (Apollod. 1,9), brother of Oenopion, Thoas and Peparethus, husband of Chrysothemis [1], father of Rhoeo, Molpadia [1] and Parthenus (Diod. 5,62,1), considered the inventor of viticulture (EM 742,48). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of the Silen Son of the Silen; inventor of the custom of mixing wine and water (Sall. fr. inc. 87 Dietsch; Plin HN 7,199). Binder…

Thersilochus

(63 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Θερσίλοχος; Thersílochos). [German version] [1] Paeonian Paeonian, follower of Asteropaeus, killed by Achilles [1] at Scamander (Hom. Il. 21,209). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Trojan, son of Antenor in Vergil Trojan, according to Verg. Aen. 6,483 f. the son of Antenor [1], companion of Hector in battle (Hom. Il. 17,216), later killed by Turnus [1]  (Verg. Aen. 12,363). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)

Virbius

(140 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] Male deity from the circle of Diana in the context of her little-known cult of Aricia (Serv. Aen. 5,95; 7,84); the road from Aricia to the sanctuary was also described as Clivus Virbi after V. (Pers. 6,56 with schol.). The earliest evidence for V. can be found in his identification with Hippolytus [1], the interpretation being based solely on the fact that horses were forbidden in his sanctuary in Aricia (Verg. Aen. 7,774-779; Ov. Fast. 3,266). The only piece of evidence of worship of V. outside Aricia is a burial inscription in Naples, which mentions a flamen Virbialis (CIL …

Polydora

(187 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Πολυδώρα). [English version] [1] Okeanide Eine der Okeaniden (Hes. theog. 354). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [English version] [2] Tochter des Danaos Tochter des Danaos, vom Flußgott Spercheios (Nikandros fr. 41 Schneider) oder Peneios (Pherekydes FGrH 3 F 8) Mutter des Dryops. Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [English version] [3] Halbschwester des Achilleus Tochter des Peleus und der Antigone [2], (Halb-)Schwester des Achilleus [1] (Pherekydes FGrH 3 F 61; Apollod. 3,163), empfängt vom Flußgott Spercheios den Menesthios [2], der dennoch als Sohn ihres Gema…

Pyraichmes

(121 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[English version] (Πυραίχμης). Führer der Paiones im Troianischen Krieg, die er als Verbündeter der Troer diesen aus Amydon als Hilfe zuführt (Hom. Il. 2,848-850, Apollod. epit. 3,34). Er tötet den Eudoros [1] (Timolaos FHG 4,521) und fällt daraufhin durch Patroklos [1]. P. wird in Troia begraben (Grabepigr. Aristot. peplos 47). Der Umstand, daß auch Asteropaios, der Enkel des Flußgottes Axios, als Führer der Paioner genannt (Hom. Il. 21,140 f.; 21,154-160), aber im Troerkatalog nicht erwähnt wird…

Peteos

(68 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[English version] (Πετεώς). Mythischer König von Athen (Hom. Il. 4,338), Sohn des Orneus (Paus. 2,25,6) und Vater des Menestheus [1] (Hom. Il. 2,552). P. soll, von Aigeus aus Athen vertrieben, mit Einwohnern des Demos Stiria die Polis Stiris in Phokis gegründet haben (Paus. 10,35,8). In ägypt. Überl. soll der Ägypter Petes der Vater des Menestheus und Herrscher in Athen gewesen sein (Diod. 1,28,6). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)

Rhadine und Leontichos

(143 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[English version] (Ῥαδίνη, Λεόντιχος). Unglückliches Liebespaar einer griech. Volkssage, die nach der Hauptquelle Strab. 8,3,20 von Stesichoros behandelt wurde (PMGF Spur. 278 Davies). Da dort nur von παῖδες Σάμιοι (“Kindern aus Samos”) die Rede ist, ist nicht eindeutig zu entscheiden, wo die Handlung verortet ist. Strabon verlegt die Sage ins triphylische Samos, Pausanias kennt aber auf der ionischen Insel Samos ein Grabmal des Liebespaares - ein Wallfahrtsort für unglücklich Verliebte - auf dem …

Salmakis

(147 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[English version] (Σαλμακίς, lat. Salmacis). Name einer griech. Nymphe und einer Quelle in Karia unweit von Halikarnassos; die Stadt besaß einen gleichnamigen Stadtteil mit einem Hermaphroditos-Heiligtum. Der Name stammt anscheinend aus kleinasiatischem Sprachgut. Der Mythos der S. ist mit einer jungen und sekundären Sagenversion des Hermaphroditos verbunden: S. verliebt sich in den Sohn des Hermes und der Aphrodite (so zum ersten Mal Diod. 4,6), der sich aber ihrem Werben widersetzt. Beim Baden in …

Securitas

(108 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] Imperial Roman personification of general public and political 'security', based upon stable rule and the governing continuity of the Imperial house (frequent motif in times of domestic political crisis). Alongside the sparse literary and epigraphic attestations (Vell. Pat. 2,103,4; Tac. Agr. 3,1; CIL VI 2051,1,30), coins and medallions of the Emperor are particularly prominent sources. Earliest secure evidence: bronze coin of Nero (AD 54-68) inscribed Securitas Augusti (other customary addenda Securitas Augg., perpetua, publica, temporum etc.). Securit…

Iphiclus

(129 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Ἴφικλος; Íphiklos). [German version] [1] Son of Phylacus Son of  Phylacus [1] (or of Cephalus: Paus. 10,29,6) and  Clymene [4], husband of Astyoche (or Diomede), father of  Podarces and  Protesilaus (Hom. Il. 2,704 f.; 13,698; Hom. Od. 11,289-297; 15,225-239). His father promised  Melampus [1] a large herd of cattle if he freed I. from his infertility, for which the sacrilege of the father was to blame (Paus. 4,36,3; Apollod. 1,98-102). The speed of I. was proverbial (Hom. Il. 23,636; Paus. 5,17,10). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Thestius Son of  Thestius from …

Polydora

(206 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Πολυδώρα/ Polydṓra). [German version] [1] Oceanid One of the Oceanids (Hes. Theog. 354). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Danaus Daughter of Danaus, by the river god Spercheius (Nicander fr. 41 Schneider) or by Peneius (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 8); mother of Dryops. Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [3] Half-sister of Achilles Daughter of Peleus and Antigone [2], (half-)sister of Achilles [1] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 61; Apollod. 3,163. The river god Spercheius fathered Menesthius [2] on her, but the latter is nonetheless regar…

Pylades

(340 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
(Πυλάδης/ Pyládēs, Doric form Πυλάδας/ Pyládas, Pind. Pyth. 11,23). [German version] [1] Friend of Orestes Phocian hero, son of Strophius and Anaxabia (e.g. Eur. Or. 764 f.; other mothers: schol. Eur. Or. 33, Hyg. Fab. 117). P. and Electra [4] (Eur. Or. 1092; 1207 ff.; Eur. IT 716 among others) were the parents of Strophius and Medon [4] (Paus. 2,16,7; Hyg. Fab. 119 f.) or Medeon (Steph. Byz. s. v. Μεδεών). P. grew up together with Orestes [1] and partakes in the latter's revenge on his mother and Aegisthus. F…

Philomelos

(256 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Beck, Hans (Köln)
(Φιλόμηλος). [English version] [1] Sohn des Iasion und der Demeter Sohn des Iasion und der Demeter, Bruder des reichen Plutos (anders Hes. theog. 969f.) und Vater des Pareas, des Gründers von Parion (häufiger wird aber Parios, Sohn des Iasion, als Gründer genannt). Ph. lebt in höchster Armut und gilt als Erfinder des Wagens, den er mit zwei Ochsen bespannt. Aus Bewunderung hierfür versetzt seine Mutter ihn als Bootes unter die Sterne (Petellides Knossios bei Hyg. astr. 2,4, s. FHG 4, p. 472). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [English version] [2] Anführer des Phokischen Bundes Sohn des Theotimos…
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