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ʿArs̲h̲

(484 words)

Author(s): Berque, J.
, the name given in Algerian legislation, during about the last hundred years, to some of the lands under collective ownership. This meaning of the word, which has various senses in the Mag̲h̲ribī dialects: “tribe” (for example, on the high plains of Constantine), “agnatic group” (for example, in the Tunisian Sahel), “federation” (for example, in Kabylia), only seems to be vouched for from the time of the preparatory enquiries for the Law of 16 June 1851. A dispute has long existed in Algeria between those who support recognition of the collective ownership, or only usu…

ʿArs̲h̲

(421 words)

Author(s): Berque, J.
, nom donné, depuis un siècle environ, en législation algérienne, à certaines terres collectives. Cette acception d’un mot auquel les dialectes mag̲h̲ribins donnent une signification variable: «tribu» (p. ex.: sur les Hauts Plateaux constantinois), ¶ «groupe agnatique» (p. ex.: dans le Sahel tunisien), «fédération» (p. ex.: en Kabylie), ne semble attestée qu’à dater des travaux préparatoires de la Loi du 16 juin 1851. Une longue controverse, opposant les partisans d’une reconnaissance de la propriété, ou seulement de la jouissance collective de ces terres, …

D̲j̲amāʿa

(3,303 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L. | Berque, J.
, meeting, assembly. In the religious language of Islam it denotes “the whole company of believers”, d̲j̲amāʿat al-muʾminīn , and hence its most usual meaning of “Muslim community”, d̲j̲amāʿa islāmiyya . In this sense d̲j̲amāʿa is almost synonymous with umma [ q.v.]. The two terms must, however, be distinguished. The term umma is Ḳurʾānic. It means “people”, “nation”, and is used in the plural ( umam ). It acquires its religious significance particularly in the Medina period when it becomes, in the singular, “the nation of the Prophet”, “the Community, e.g., Ḳurʾān III, 110, etc.). T…

ʿAmal

(2,071 words)

Author(s): Boer, Tj. de | Gardet, L. | Berque, J. | Ed.
(a.). 1. ʿAmal , performance, action, is usually discussed by the speculative theologians and philosophers only in connection with belief [see ʿilm, īmān] or with ʿilm and naẓar . From Hellenistic tradition was known the definition of philosophy as the "knowledge of the nature of things and the doing of good" (cf. Mafātīḥ , ed. van Vloten, 131 f.). Many Muslim thinkers have emphasised the necessity or at least the desirability of this combination (cf. Goldziher, Kitāb Maʿānī al-Nafs , 54*-60*). But it is the intellectualism of the Greek philosophy, in…

ʿAmal

(1,968 words)

Author(s): Boer, Tj. de | Gardet, L. | Berque, J. | Réd.
(a.). 1. ʿ Amal, exécution, action, est employé par les théologiens spéculatifs et les philosophes la plupart du temps en relation seulement avec la foi [v. ʿIlm, Imān] ou avec ʿ ilm et naẓar. On connaissait par la tradition hellénistique la définition de la philosophie d’après laquelle elle est la «science de l’existence des choses et l’accomplissement du bien» (cf. Mafātīḥ, éd. v. Vloten, 131 sqq.). Beaucoup de penseurs islamiques ont insisté sur ce qu’il y a de nécessaire, ou en tout cas de désirable dans cette combinaison (v. à ce sujet Goldziher, Kitāb Maʿānī al-nafs, 54*-60*). Mais …