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Abū Misḥal

(493 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Abū Misḥal, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. Ḥarīsh (d. c.250/864), was a Bedouin expert on language and the material culture of Arabia, who taught in Baghdad in the first half of the third/ninth century. He was of Bedouin origin but had left the Najd for Baghdad at an early age. Different from many other fuṣaḥāʾ al-aʿrāb  (“Bedouin knowledgeable in the field of the Arabic language”) who served as informants for the early philologists, Abū Misḥal had received thorough philological training himself. His principal teacher was al-Kisāʾī (d. 189/805), the …
Date: 2019-03-21

al-Āthārī

(767 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Abū Saʿīd Zayn al-Dīn Shaʿbān b. Muḥammad b. Dāwūd al-Qurashī al-Āthārī al-Shāfiʿī (765–828/1364–1425), was a grammarian and an author of badīʿiyyāt and didactic poems. Al-Āthārī was born in Mosul in Shaʿbān 765/May 1364. He was educated in Cairo, where he specialised in the field of adab, which comprised poetry and prose and the various disciplines of linguistics and rhetoric. In 796/1394, he managed to induce fifteen leading ʿulamāʾ to write poems in praise (taqārīẓ, sg. taqrīẓ) of his early work al-Wajh al-jamīl, a didactic poem on prosody. Although this apparent acceptan…
Date: 2019-03-21

Ibn al-Qaysarānī, Abū ʿAbdallāh

(1,068 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
The Syrian poet Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Naṣr b. Ṣaghīr al-ʿAkkāwī al-Ḥalabī, known as al-Qaysarānī or Ibn al-Qaysarānī (478–548/1085–1153), is famous for his panegyrics, especially those he composed for ʿImād al-Dīn Zangī (r. 521–41/1127–46) and his son Nūr al-Dīn b. Zangī (r. 541–65/1146–74), and his love poems about people from the region of Anṭākiya. Ibn al-Qaysarānī was born in ʿAkkā (Acre, Palestine) in 478/1085 and grew up in nearby Qaysāriyya (Caesarea Maritima) until his family fled to Damascus (probably in 494/1101) to take refuge from t…
Date: 2019-03-21

al-Jazzār, Abū l-Ḥusayn

(1,122 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Jamāl al-Dīn Abū l-Ḥusayn Yaḥyā b. ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm b. Yaḥyā, known as al-Jazzār, “the butcher” (601–79/1204–81), was an Egyptian tradesman and a highly acclaimed poet who, along with his panegyrics and love poetry, was famous for his self-deprecating poems on daily life. He was born in al-Fusṭāṭ in Ṣafar 601/October 1204 (al-Birzālī) into a family of butchers, a trade that he would later learn and practise himself. From a young age, he cultivated his poetic talent—mainly as an autodidact—and it soon brought him some renown. Tempted by his…
Date: 2019-03-21

Ibn Daftarkhwān

(807 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Al-Sharīf Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Riḍā al-Ḥusaynī al-Mūsawī al-Ṭūsī, known as Ibn Daftarkhwān (d. 655/1257), was a poet and littérateur of Syria and Iraq. He became famous mainly for his collections of epigrams describing 1001 lovable boys and 1001 lovable girls. He was born on 4 Ṣafar 589/9 February 1193 in the central Syrian city of Hama, where he also died, on 4 Rabīʿ II 655/21 April 1257. Little is known about his life other than the fact that he eulogised the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Mustanṣir (r. 623–40/1226–42) in Baghdad (al…
Date: 2019-03-21

Anthologies, Arabic literature (post-Mongol period)

(2,775 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
The time of the so-called “Sunnī revival,” which had its origins in the ascent of the Saljūqs around the middle of the fifth/eleventh century, can be considered the beginning of a period of crisis for Arabic literature. At that time, those Eastern regions that had provided a most fertile ground for Arabic literature in the centuries before began to adopt Persian in place of Arabic as the preferred language of literature. Neither Fāṭimid Egypt, where an Arabic literary culture was still in a form…
Date: 2019-03-21

al-ʿAmīdī, Abū Saʿīd

(628 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Abū Saʿīd (or Abū Saʿd) Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-ʿAmīdī (d. probably 5 Jumādā II 443/14 October 1051) was a littérateur and literary critic of Fāṭimid Egypt. A trained philologist and grammarian, he served in the Fāṭimid chancellery of Cairo and reached the peak of his career during the reign of the caliph al-Mustanṣir bi-llāh (r. 427–87/1035–94), when he held the office of head of the dīwān al-inshāʾ, between Ṣafar 432/October 1040 and Jumādā II 436/December 1044–January 1045. If the latter date is correct, it indicates that the year 433, given as the y…
Date: 2019-03-21

Abū l-Ṭayyib al-Lughawī

(465 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Abū l-Ṭayyib al-Lughawī, ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. ʿAlī al-ʿAskarī al-Ḥalabī (d. 351/962), was an Arabic linguist who specialised in semantics and lexicography (ʿilm al-lugha), hence known as al-Lughawī. Abū l-Ṭayyib was born in ʿAskar Mukram and went to study in Baghdad. His main teachers were Abū ʿUmar al-Zāhid, known as Ghulām Thaʿlab (d. 345/956), and Abū Bakr al-Ṣūlī (d. c.335/946). From Baghdad he went to Aleppo, which the Ḥamdānid ruler Sayf al-Dawla (r. 333–56/944–67) had made a centre of science and belles-lettres. Abū l-…
Date: 2019-03-21

Abū Ziyād al-Kilābī

(469 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Abū Ziyād Yazīd b. ʿAbdallāh b. al-Ḥurr al-Kilābī (d. c. 200/815–6), a member of the Kilāb tribe of ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, grew up in a Bedouin environment in Arabia. During the reign of al-Mahdī (158–69/775–85) he migrated to Baghdad to establish contacts with the famous philologists of his time, both as a student and as a Bedouin informant. He acquired a profound knowledge as a philologist but never ceased to speak Arabic with a discernible dialectal influence. Among the scholars who transmitted information that Abū Ziyād provided on Arabic lexicography, poetry, and lore we…
Date: 2019-03-21

Abū Ḥafṣ al-Shiṭranjī

(207 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Abū Ḥafṣ al-Shiṭranjī (d. during the caliphate of al-Muʿtaṣim, 218–27/833–42), was a poet of ghazal at the ʿAbbāsid court. Abū Ḥafṣ, whose father had been a mawlā of al-Manṣūr, grew up in the household of the caliph al-Mahdī. After al-Mahdī’s death, Abū Ḥafṣ joined the entourage of his daughter, the singer and poet ʿUlayya bt. al-Mahdī (160–210/777–825), and composed poetry at her request. Only a few of his poems have been preserved, most of them love poems in the vein of al-ʿAbbās b. al-Aḥnaf. Two oft…
Date: 2019-03-21

al-Azharī, Khālid b. ʿAbdallāh

(738 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Zayn al-Dīn Khālid b. ʿAbdallāh b. Abī Bakr al-Jirjī (or al-Jirjāwī) al-Waqqād al-Azharī was a prolific ninth/fifteenth-century Egyptian scholar and the author of widely used textbooks and commentaries, especially in the field of grammar. He was born in Jirjā (Upper Egypt) around 838/1434–5. While he was still an infant, his parents brought him with them to Cairo. Later he worked as a lamplighter (waqqād) in a mosque, where he began to develop an interest in learning and scholarship. He continued his studies at al-Azhar, focusing on the propaedeutic discipl…
Date: 2019-03-21

ʿAmr b. Maʿdīkarib

(609 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Abū Thawr ʿAmr b. Maʿdīkarib al-Zubaydī was a pre- and early Islamic poet and warrior of Yemeni origin, famous for his poems on war, weapons, and bravery. Several dates have been proposed for his death. It is most probable that he died from wounds he suffered in the battle of Nihāwand in 21/642. As a leading figure of the South Arabian Zubayd tribe, a branch of the Madhḥij group, he is said to have been a member of its delegation to the Prophet in the year 9/630 or 10/631 and to have embraced Islam, though Ibn Ḥajar quotes a source to the effect that ʿAmr did not meet the Prophet. A ḥadīth of the Prophet…
Date: 2019-03-21

Adab c) and Islamic scholarship after the “Sunnī revival”

(2,121 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Adab, a term that appears early on in Islamic culture, was refined and redefined during the so-called Sunnī revival (fifth/eleventh century), with the advances in the linguistic sciences and in Islamic scholarship in general that took place during that era. 1. The adīb of the Saljūq and post-Saljūq period During the first centuries of the ʿAbbāsid empire, secretaries ( kuttāb, sg. kātib) formed a group with its own identity and curriculum. This situation changed during the Sunnī revival (fifth/eleventh century), which, with respect to adab and the study of language, is characte…
Date: 2019-03-21

al-Ḥammāmī

(513 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Al-Naṣīr (= Naṣīr al-Dīn) b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Munāwī al-Ḥammāmī (609–712/1212 or 1213–1312) was a Cairene bath operator and poet whose epigrams, riddles, and strophic poems were widely acclaimed. He was one of several Ayyūbid and Mamlūk poets who, despite their humble origins and limited scholarly training, not only became popular with the middle classes but also captured the attention of elite udabāʾ (littérateurs). He was born in Munyat Banī Khaṣīb (hence the nisba al-Munāwī), but at some stage he moved to Cairo, where he earned his living by running bathhouses and…
Date: 2019-03-21

ʿIzz al-Dīn al-Mawṣilī

(846 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Bakr al-Dimashqī al-Ḥanbalī, called ʿIzz al-Dīn al-Mawṣilī (d. 789/1387), was a poet most famous for his badīʿiyya (lit., marvel), a poem in praise of the prophet Muḥammad, which simultaneously exemplifies Arabic stylistic devices and alludes to their names. ʿIzz al-Dīn was born in Mosul and resided in Aleppo for some time, but he spent most of his life in Damascus. As a jurist of the Ḥanbalī law school, he used to sit at the Bāb al-Sāʿāt (gate of the clocks) of the Umayyad mosque to offer his service as notary (shāhid). He died in Damascus on 5 Jumādā I 789…
Date: 2019-03-21

Ibn Munīr al-Ṭarābulusī

(980 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Muhadhdhab al-Dīn Abū l-Ḥusayn Aḥmad b. Munīr b. Aḥmad b. Mufliḥ al-Ṭarābulusī (or al-Aṭrābulusī) al-Raffāʾ (the darner), known as Ibn Munīr al-Ṭarābulusī (b. 473/1080–1, d. 548/1153), was a Syrian poet famous for his panegyrics—especially those written for the Zangid rulers ʿImād al-Dīn Zangī (r. 521–41/1127–46) and his son Nūr al-Dīn (r. 541–65/1146–74)—and for several love poems and the Qaṣīda Tatariyya. Ibn Munīr was born in Ṭarābulus (Tripoli, Lebanon) the son of a darner, hence his laqab al-Raffāʾ. His father used to recite Shīʿī poetry in the markets of Tripoli,…
Date: 2019-03-21

Insanity

(956 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Unsoundness or derangement of mind, especially without recognition of one's illness (see illness and health ), sometimes with the connotation of possession by a demon. Sixteen passages in the Qurʾān defend prophets (see prophets and prophethood; messenger) from the accusation of being majnūn, “possessed by demons (see devil ), insane, mad.” Unbelievers (see belief and unbelief ) of different peoples are shown in the Qurʾān to accuse a prophet of being majnūn, for which reason they consider his message to be a lie (q.v.). The accusation is either reported as direct …

ʿIfrīt

(829 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Mentioned once in the Qurʾān as designation of a jinn (q.v.), the word ʿifrīt (pl. ʿafārīt) gave rise to numerous interpretations. In the qurʾānic version of the story about Solomon (q.v.) and the Queen of Sheba (see bilqīs ), the former asks for somebody to fetch him the Queen's throne, whereupon an ʿifrīt of the jinn offers to bring it even before Solomon can rise ¶ from his place ( q 27:39). The duty is not given to him, however, but to somebody who is endowed with the knowledge of the scripture (see book; scripture and the qurʾān) and still surpasses the ʿifrīt in swiftness ( q 27:40). As just sta…

Eusebius of Caesarea

(2,041 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas Johann
b. shortly after AD 260; d. between AD 337 and 340 in Caesarea in Palestine (Caesarea [3] Maritima); Theologian and Greek ecclesiastical author; became bishop of Caesarea in 314. Works The substantial theological work of Eusebius stands in the tradition of Origenes [2]; it comprises exegetical, historical, and apologetic writings. Some of it is lost (e.g. Apology for Origen; Against Porphyry), other writings are preserved only in fragments (e.g. commentaries on Dan, Heb, and Luke) or early translations (e.g. Chronicle; Theophany). His most influential work is the Ecclesiastical Hi…

Iustinus Martys (Justin Martyr)

(960 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas Johann
b. in Flavia Neapolis (Nablus) in Palestine; d. AD 165 in Rome; Greek (Middle Platonian) philosopher and Christian martyr ( Acta Iustini et sodalium; cf. Euseb. Hist. eccl. 4; 16) Works Of the writings mentioned in Eusebius’ [7] Church History (4,11,10; 4,18,1–6. 9), only two apologies are extant, which must have formed a single work originally (identical with the Apology to Antoninus [1] Pius mentioned by Eusebius), and the Dialogue with Trypho (probably identical with the Dialogue Against the Jews, also mentioned by Eusebius). A number of spurious Greek writings are also…
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