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(421 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(formerly Hungarian Szenta; Turkish , , ; [ Ḳāmūs al-Aʿlām, iv. 2425] and also [in Ḵh̲alīl Edhem, Düwel-i islāmīye, 1927 p. 323]; Serbo-Croat Senta), a flourishing town on the right bank of the Theiss in the Bačka (since 1929 in the Danube banate) in Jugoslavia, with 30,044 inhabitants (1931), first mentioned in 1216 and made a free city in 1516. After the battle of Mohács (1526) Zenta became Turkish and belonged to the sand̲j̲aḳ of Segedīn (Szegedin; cf. e. g. Fekete, Türkische Schriftendes Palatin N. Esterházy, 1932, p. 110 and 324). Ewliyā Čelebi (vii. 363) who visited Zenta in the xviith …


(616 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
( and , in the modern Turkish orthography Nizip), an administrative district in the Turkish wilāyet of G̲h̲āzī ʿAintāb (now officially Gazi Antep) which borders on Syria in the south. The little town lies not far from the right bank of the Euphrates, N. E. of Ḥalab (Aleppo). Nisib formerly belonged to northern Syria, to the sand̲j̲aḳ of Urfa in the wilāyet of Ḥalab. According to the census of 1927, the whole district had 48,717 inhabitants of whom only 3,000—4,000 were in the town. Nisib is noted …


(878 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(pronounced Pósharevatz; in the French orthography Pojarévatz; Passarovitz is a corruption like the Turkish Pasarofça), a rising commercial town in Yugoslavia (in the Danube banate), headquarters of the district of the same name in the fertile plain between Mora va and Mlava, only 10 miles from the Danube port of Dubravica with 13,731 inhabitants (1930). The town, the name of which is popularly ¶ connected with the Serbo-Croat word požar (“fire”) (M. Ð. Milićević, Kneževina Srbija, Belgrad 1876, p. 172 and 1058), is first mentioned towards the end of the xvth century. It must however…


(980 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(written cf. Ḳāmūs al-Aʿlām, ii. 1467) or Pazwant-Og̲h̲lu ( in ʿAbd al-Raḥmān S̲h̲araf, Taʾrīk̲h̲, ii. 280) or, according to the new orthography, Pazvantoǧlu (Hāmit ve Muhsin, Türkiye Tarihi, p. 423) but on his own seal “Pazwand-zāde ʿOt̲h̲mān” (in Orěškow, see Bibl.), the rebel Pas̲h̲a of Vidin (1758—1807). His family originated in Tuzla in Bosnia, but his grandfather Paswan Ag̲h̲a, for his services in the Austrian wars, was, granted two villages near Vidin in Bulgaria about 1739. Ot̲h̲mān’s father ʿOmar Ag̲h̲a Paswan-Og̲h̲lu not only inherited these villages but as bairaktār etc.…


(1,187 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
, a Bulgarian town on the Black Sea, the chief harbour of export of the country, capital of the district of the same name, lies at the mouth of the Devna surrounded by gardens and vineyards. The town, which down to 1878 was strongly fortified, is the terminal station of railway from Sofia and Ruščuk and according to the census of Dec. 31, 1926 has 60,563 inhabitants. The development of the modern harbour has considerably increased trade, commerce and industry. Before the war of 1878, Turks formed more than half the-population, and Jireček ( Das Fürstenthum Bulgarien, p. 531) could say as l…


(1,683 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(Serb. Skoplye), capital of the former Turkish wilāyet of Ḳoṣowa (Serb. Kosovo), now the capital ofthe Vardar ban a t in the kingdom of Jugoslavia, is situated at a height of 960 feet above sea-level in the centre of a fertile valley surrounded by snow-covered mountains and built on both sides of the Vardar; in 1931 it had 64,807 inhabitants (only 32,249 in 1921) of whom over a third are Muslims. On the left bank of the river are the older quarters of the town (the fortress, the Turkish quarter…


(768 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(Hungarian Pétervárad, Turkish Waradīn ), a famous fortress and town in Sirmia (Yugoslavia) on the main railway line Belgrad (-Petrovaradin)-Novi Sad-Subotica-Budapest, lies on the right bank of the Danube opposite Novi Sad (Neusatz), chief town and headquarters of the Danube banate, with which it is connected by two bridges and since 1929 also administratively. There are two fortresses, an upper one which rises 150 feet above the Danube on rocks of serpentine surrounded on three sides by the river …


(890 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(Plewna, Plevna, Turkish Plewne ), an important town in Northern Bulgaria, 350 feet above sea-level in a depression formed by the little river Tučenica (c = tz), which flows not far from the town on the right into the Vid, the right bank tributary of the Danube. Surrounded by hills and at the intersection of the high roads to Vidin, Nikopol, Sofia and the passes of the Balkans, Plevna has long been a place of strategic importance; it is now also crossed by one of the main railway lines (Sofia-Plevna…


(797 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
, the general term for the wandering Turkish tribes in Asia Minor, also found sporadically on the Balkan peninsula. The name in Turkish means “wanderers”, i.e. nomads in general, and some scholars (first v. Strahlenberg [1730], then J. v. Hammer and H. Kiepert) held the view that the Same word was contained in the name of the Iyrkes (’Ιῦρχαι), a people described by Herodotos (iv. 22), who lived ¶ by hunting, roughly in the southern Ural. J. H. Mordtmann has similarly referred the account by Kinnamos of the nomads driven by the Emperor Manuel I in 1175 from the r…

Ibn Ḳuzmān

(1,514 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad, the celebrated wandering singer of Cordova about whom C. F. Seybold has already collected all the available information (1918) (cf. above ii. 399); he concluded with the hope that his Dīwān or Cancionero would soon be made accessible in a scholarly edition with translation and notes. This task was undertaken by A. R. Nykl and from his edition of the Cancionero and the prologue to it in prose by the author we are able to supplement the biography and to obtain a clear idea of his poetic art and of the possibility in general of a connection…

Naṣr al-Dīn

(2,468 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(pron. Naṣreddīn) k̲h̲od̲j̲a, the hero of the stories of wit and stupidity among the Turks, who bears a strong resemblance to the German Till Eulenspiegel, the English Joe Miller, the Italian Bertoldo, the Russian Balakirew, etc. Various opinions are current about his life. One tradition for example makes him a learned man of the time of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd, but another makes him a contemporary of the Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh ʿAlāʿ al-Dīn Takas̲h̲ (reigned c. 1172-1200). The two traditions are not to be taken seriously; at most they might be regarded as an indication tha…


(1,473 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
, the capital of the Herzegovina in the kingdom of Jugoslavia, one hundred miles S. W. of Sarayevo, on the Sarayevo— (Mostar---) Dubrovnik railway. By the new (Oct. 3, 1929) division of Jugoslavia into nine banats, Mostar passed to the coast banat, the capital of which is Split (Spalato). The picturesque town lies two hundred feet above sea-level on both banks of the Neretva (Narenta) between the slopes of the Podvelež and the Hum. The old quarters of the town (Konak, Čars̲h̲ya etc.) are in the …


(911 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(also written Banja Luka; Turkish [older form] and [later spelling]), a town in Bosnia in the kingdom of Jugoslavia, 500 feet above the sea on both banks of the Vrbas, a tributary of the Save, on the edge of a plain in picturesque mountainous surroundings. According to the new administrative division of Jugoslavia into nine banates in 1929, Banjaluka is the capital of the Vrbas banate, the headquarters of various civil and military authorities and has (1931) 21,177 inhabitants of whom about a third are Muslims (all speaking Serbo-Croatian), who have 27 mosques, a mediese combining three ¶ o…

Abū Kabīr

(574 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
al-Hud̲h̲alī, an early Arab poet, according to Abū Ḏh̲uʿaib, the second greatest poet of the tribe of Hud̲h̲ail [q. v.]. He belonged to the Banū Saʿd or, according to some, to the Banū Ḏj̲uraib. His real name was ʿĀmir (or ʿUwaimir) b. al-Ḥulais (also without the article), according to other statements, ʿĀmir b. Ḏj̲amra, but he became celebrated under his kunya. According to commentators (cf. e. g. Tibrīzī in the Ḥamāsa), Abū Kabīr had married the mother of the famous Taʾabbaṭa S̲h̲arran [q. v.] and as the stepson looked askance at this union the poet is said to have been ad…


(2,704 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
, the name given to a Bulgarian speaking Muslim in Bulgaria and Thrace. This name which is usually given them by their Christian fellow-countrymen, used also to be given occasionally by Bulgarians to Muslims speaking Serbian in western Macedonia. There however the Serbian Muslims are usually called torbeši (sing, torbeš) by their Christian fellow-citizens, sometimes also poturi, more rarely kurki etc. How far these Serbian Muslims are still called Pomaks by some people depends mainly on the influence of the Bulgarian school and literature and would only…


(1,618 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(Serbian Niš), the second largest town in Serbia, now the capital of the banate of Morava in the kingdom of Jugoslavia, situated 650 feet above sea-level in a fertile plain surrounded by hills, on both sides of the Nišava not far from its junction with the Morava and an important centre of communications by rail and road, on the international route to Sofia-Istanbul or Salonika-Athens. The larger part of the town with the railway station lies on the left bank, the fortress is on the right. The tw…

Ibn Dāwūd

(1,213 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
, whose full name was Abū Bakr Muḥammad Ibn (Abī Sulaimān) Dāwūd al-Iṣfahānī, a Ẓāhirī jurist and celebrated Bag̲h̲dād anthologist and poet (868-909). He was the son and successor of the founder of the Ẓāhirī school of law, Dāwūd b. ʿAlī (815— 883) whose family came from Iṣfahān. While quite a youth he showed a great bent for literature and fondness for the society of men of letters; he was, for example, friendly with the poet al-Buḥturī, was considerably influenced by his literary mentor Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-Sh.aibānī (cf. Margoliouth, Irs̲h̲ād, i. 4), and when barely 20 (about 890) wrote his Kit…


(1,415 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
, a people of Turkish stock of the middle ages. Their name occurs in numerous variants (Bad̲j̲nāk, Pačnak, Πατζινακῖται, Πατζινάκαι, Patzinacitae, Patzinacae, Piecinigi, Pincenakiti, Pecenaci etc.; also Bysseni, Bessi, in Hungarian Besenyök, etc.). There is no longer any doubt that they were a branch of the Turkish race. Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn (xiiith century; see g̲h̲āzān) and Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī (1073) number them among the G̲h̲uzz [q. v.] tribes; the latter ( Dīwān Lug̲h̲āt al-Turk, i. 27; cf. K. Cs. A., i. 36) puts them in the northern group of Turkish peoples, to which th…