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Ordination

(887 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
According to the New Testament, all baptized people should understand themselves to be priests: "You are a royal priesthood" (1 Pet. 2:9). However, "bishop" (episkopos), "presbyter," and "deacon" are …
Date: 2016-08-09

Marriage

(1,630 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
As general basic constants in premodern marriage we may list: arrangement by parents or the clan, the legal dominance of the husband, and his greater freedom of movement in extramarital sexuality as w…
Date: 2016-10-18

Baptism

(1,099 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
Baptism ratified one's becoming a Christian. Ritually, it was a washing which indicated the purification and liberation from all sins; this was followed by anointing, which indicated the gift of the S…
Date: 2016-10-18

Dying, Purgatory

(1,011 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
Humans know they will have to die (→life cycle – birth, upbringing, generations, old age, illness, and death). Into the modern period, religion always offered the hope of a continuing life after death…
Date: 2016-08-09

Christian Discipleship

(1,059 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
Jesus knew his mission was to save man. He understood his preaching as the proclamation of the kingdom of God: "The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is close at hand" (Mark 1:15). He interpre…
Date: 2016-08-09

Liturgy and Pastoral Care

(1,171 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
From the beginning, gatherings for worship proceeded according to specific structures, as in the sequence of the proclaimed word of God and the responding prayer. This pattern underlay the Liturgy of …
Date: 2016-08-09

The Indigenous Religions of Medieval Europe

(1,792 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
The indigenous religions of Central Europe presented a patchwork picture of religions, cultures, and peoples. The Celts had already attained a remarkably high level of civilization, possessing fortres…
Date: 2016-08-09

Christianity

(1,883 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
Along with other Eastern religions, Christianity spread in the ancient world. Its ethical personalism is striking, both in the relationship with God and with other people. According to biblical revela…
Date: 2016-10-18

Penance

(1,301 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
Religion wants to secure salvation and thus also has to deal with the disruptions, defects, and failings in human life and the course of the world. Religious history suggests two ways of remedying the…
Date: 2016-08-09

Sacraments

(701 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
All religions are familiar with sacred acts, the most important of which in Christianity are called sacraments, which are understood as the rites and salvific symbols ordained by God or Jesus Christ. …
Date: 2016-10-18

Mass

(3,363 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
Sacrifice is a primary act in all religion. People make sacrifices to God/gods because they want to achieve more than is humanly possible, things that only more powerful beings are able to give: rich …
Date: 2016-08-09

Judaism

(1,084 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
Jesus was a Jewish rabbi and understood himself to be the Messiah. As a result, he was regarded by the high priests as a blasphemer and condemned to crucifixion by the Roman governor Pontius Pilate. F…
Date: 2016-10-18

Religion

(1,673 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
Religion is the acknowledgment of powers that exceed what is humanly possible, and which are thus "transcendent" powers. Thanks to their superior power, the transcendent powers have given life to ever…
Date: 2016-10-18

The Christian Conception of God and of the Human Being

(1,702 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
The monarchical-monotheistic form of religion, as preached by Christianity, says that only one God rules over all other powers and so ultimately also over evil ones. At the same time, the Christian hi…
Date: 2016-08-09

Dogma and Heresy

(1,269 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
Only those who believed could be baptized, and this belief should not happen "without due consideration" (1 Cor. 15:2). The three baptismal questions: "Do you believe in God the Father?" "Do you belie…
Date: 2016-08-09

The Christianization of Latin Europe

(3,006 words)

Author(s): Arnold Angenendt
Christianity understood itself as a religion for all and was aware that its task was worldwide mission: "Therefore go and make disciples of all nations" (Matt. 28:19). Proclaiming the contents of a fa…
Date: 2016-10-18